Ans. Defining Colonialism: Colonialism is a policy which aims at creating, organizing and maintaining an empire. According to J.A. Hobson, “Colonialism, in its best sense, is a natural overflow of nationality; its test is the power of colonists to transplant the civilization. They represent to the new natural and social environment in which they find themselves.” The main characteristics of the colonial rule are: exploitation, undemocratic Government and bureaucratic system.
Colonies had always been there for example the Greeks had established colonies in the pre-Christ era; the Cholas went overseas and established colonies in Indo-China and Indonesia. From the 16th century onwards a small part of the world such as Spain, Portugal, Holland, Britain and France established political domination over the rest of the world. This resulted the economic integration of the colonised world into the needs of the economies of conquering powers through a process of deeply inequitable trade. The level of development of many countries was very high before the rise of colonialism; for example countries such as India, China, Arabs, etc.