CONSEQUENCES OF AGRICULTURE
The beginning of agriculture and its spread to large parts of the earth had far reaching consequences for the human societies. We discuss a few of these in this section.
Birth of Village Culture
Hunter–gatherers moved their homes according to the seasonal migration of animals and availability of fruits and roots. Unlike hunting gathering, agriculture requires that the farmer stays in one place for a long period. He has to sow seeds, he has to water the plants and he has to protect the saplings from birds and animals. Only after four to six months are the plants ready for harvesting. This means that unlike hunting–gathering, agriculture encourages settling down in one place. That is why the beginning of agriculture is connected with the emergence of villages. Although, foraging communities founded villages and towns in some places where plentiful supply of food was available all the year round, such places were rare. In domesticating animals and plants humans necessarily domesticated themselves. This world covered with roads and paths, huts and houses, hamlets, villages and towns is a creation of our agricultural ancestors. These are the places archaeologists dig up (CONSEQUENCES OF AGRICULTURE).