Criteria for classification of consonants
Customarily, the three fundamental criteria utilized as a part of the articulatory portrayal of a sound are
- Vocal line vibration (voicing),
- The place of verbalization and
- The way of verbalization.
To the extent voicing is concerned, specify has been made in the section portraying the articulatory organs that the vocal lines speak to a key component in the verbalization of discourse sounds. On the off chance that the strings vibrate when we deliver a sound, the sound accordingly expressed is called a voiced sound (Rom. sonor).
On the off chance that, despite what might be expected, the sound is articulated without vocal rope vibration, at that point we are discussing a voiceless sound (Rom. surd). We have as of now said that all vowels are voiced, while as respects consonants, they fall into the two classes specified previously.
Voicing is not, in any case, the main parameter that can be utilized to group consonants and other criteria will likewise be utilized to cross-arrange this truly various and heterogeneous class of sounds. On the off chance that vibration of the vocal strings constitutes an essential rule for separating among different sounds, the active airstream may make the two depressions (oral or nasal) said in the second section vibrate. This produces an acoustic marvel we know about from regular day to day existence, to be specific reverberation.
The higher or bring down level of reverberation created when a sound is articulated outcomes into a higher or, then again bring down level of unmistakable quality or resonation and prompts a noteworthy refinement between two classes of consonants:
- Sonorants and
Sonorants will, obviously, be called those sounds having a higher level of vibrancy and reverberation, while obstruents will be those consonants portrayed by a nearly bring down resonance and including a much bring down reverberation (assuming any). The level of resonance being higher on account of sonorants (the vowels themselves will hold the most astounding position on a resonation scale), they will thusly be vowel or vowel-like sounds.
The obstruents will be those sounds having overwhelmingly consonant components, the class including the supposed certifiable or genuine consonants. In English, all sonorants are voiced, while impedes might be voiced or voiceless.