Q. 3. Critically examine the nexus between bureaucras, politicians and businessmen.

Naxalite Movement in Bihar

At the end of 1960, Dalits of Bihar initiaed the political movement. In Bihar, landlords formed their seans based on caste or private army in order to protect their class interests. Koeri Jagdish Mahto the, backward class leader made the first attempt to mobilise the Dalits of Arrah district and influence the ideologies of Marxism and Ambedkarism. He started publication of the paper called Harijanistan in Arrah district, raised the issue of low wages of the workers, protection of izzat of Dalit women and social honour. In order to protect the interests of Dalits he applied violent methods such as murder of the landlords. Ultimately the in 1971, Koeri Jagdish Mahto was murdered.

In 1980, private army were organised. For example landlords had ‘Bhoomi Sena’; Rajputs had ‘Lorik Sena’ labourers formed the ‘Lal Sena’, Naxalites made an attempt to unite the middle caste and middle caste peasants. Organisations were set up like ‘Liberation’, ‘Party Unity’ in Patna and Jehanabad districts. Party Unity set up a public organisation Mazdur kisan Sangram Samiti (MKSS). MKSS with the help of another organisation Bihar Pradesh Kisan Sabaha (BPKS) election, formed the armies against the landlords. In 1983 the liberation group formed ‘The Indian Peoples front (IPF)’. In 1985 the IPF contested the Assembly elections. This showed the change of the naxalite groups from ‘agrarian revolution’ to ‘taking state power’.

Dalit Movement in Karnataka Dalit Sangharsh Samiti (DSS) was organized by Dalits in Karnataka. It was founded in 1973 and during the period of 1974 and 1984, it relating the issues ralting to wages of the agricultural labourers, devdasi and reservation.

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