Define condition and warranty in a contract of sale of goods, when condition be treated as a warranty.

Contract of Sale

As indicated by Section 4 of the Sale of Goods Act an agreement of the offer of products is an agreement whereby the sellertransfers, or consents to exchange, the property in (i.e., responsibility for) to the purchaser for a price.A contract of salemay be (I) outright or (ii) restrictive, i.e., as per the desires of the gatherings to the contract.The expression “contractof deal” is a nonexclusive term. It incorporates a ‘real deal’ and in addition a ‘consent to offer’. Where under an agreement ofsale the property in the merchandise (i.e., the possession has gone from the dealer to the purchaser, the agreement is called asale. Where the exchange of possession is to occur at a future date, or subject to some condition to be fulfilledlater, the agreement is called a consent to offer. A consent to offer turns into a deal when the time slips by or thecondition is satisfied subject to which the responsibility for products is to be transferred.A has a book. He exchanges hisright or possession to B for Rs.15. There is a deal. Where A consents to exchange the responsibility for book to B aftertwo months for Rs.15, this is a consent to offer, when the two months terminate, it turns into a sale.The maindistinction between a deal and a consent to offer is that in a deal the purchaser possesses the merchandise, while in an agreementto offer, the proprietorship does not go from the dealer to the purchaser at the season of the agreement. The merchant continuesto be the proprietor until the point when the consent to offer turns into a real deal by the expiry of the stipulated time or onthe satisfaction of some condition.

Fundamentals of a Contract of Sale

A legitimate contract of offer must comprise of the accompanying basics :

(1) Two gatherings: There must be two gatherings viz., purchaser and dealer to constitute the agreement. So where a personbuys his own products through some operator, there is no agreement. Be that as it may, a section proprietor can pitch his offer to otherpart-proprietors.

(2) Goods: Subject matter of agreement of offer must be the products of any sort aside from resolute merchandise.

(3) Transfer of property: Passing of property is vital and not the physical conveyance of products.

(4) Price: Consideration for an agreement of offer must be cash. On the off chance that a few products are provided as compensation for workdone or in return for a few merchandise, it doesn’t add up to contract of offer.

(5) Lastly, it must contain every one of the fundamentals of a legitimate contract.

Contract of offer how made. No specific from is important to constitute an agreement of offer. It is, as anyother contract, made by the customary strategy for offer by one gathering and its acknowledgment by the other party. Itmay be made in composing or by listening in on others’ conversations, or somewhat in composing and incompletely by overhearing people’s conversations. It might alsobe inferred from the direct of gatherings, or from the course of dealings between the gatherings.

Contrast amongst Sale and Agreement to Sell

1. Nature of agreement: Sale is an executed contract while a consent to offer is an executory contract. Inan agreernent to pitch something stays to be finished. It might move toward becoming deal just when the conditions ofcontract are satisfied.

2. Exchange of property: In a deal the exchange of property happens promptly yet in an understanding tosell, it doesn’t go to the purchaser instantly. As the purchaser, in a deal promptly turns into the proprietor ofgoods, so the hazard likewise goes to him. Be that as it may, in a consent to offer merchant still remains the proprietor so the riskdoes not go to the purchaser and if the merchandise are annihilated, the misfortune will fall on the dealer despite the fact that theyare in the ownership of the purchaser.

3. Making of right: A consent to offer makes a ‘Jus in personam’, i.e., an individual right just againstthe purchaser while a deal makes ‘fus in rem’, i.e, ideal in the merchandise against the entire world.

4. Cures in the event of rupture: In a consent to offer, the dealer can sue just for harms for non-execution of agreement by the purchaser. Be that as it may, in a deal, the vender can sue at the cost of the merchandise. Inaddition to that he has the privilege of lien, stoppage in travel and re-sale.In instance of break of agreement of saleby the dealer, the purchaser can sue for the conveyance of merchandise or for harms yet in a consent to offer the purchaser has onlya individual cure against the vender.

5. Results of Insolvency: In a deal if the purchaser is pronounced bankrupt; the vender must convey thegoods to the official beneficiary and can guarantee rateable profit like other unsecured loan bosses for the priceunpaid on his merchandise. In a consent to offer the merchant can decline to convey the merchandise unless paid for thegoods.

In a deal, if the vender is decreed bankrupt, the purchaser is qualified for get the products from the official beneficiary. However, inan consent to offer, if the purchaser has made the installment ahead of time to the vender, he can request rateable dividendand not the conveyance of products.

Topic of Contract of Sale

The topic of agreement of offer is basically the products. Segment 2 (7) says that “products”. implies each kind ofmovable property other than cash or noteworthy cases, it incorporates stock and offers, developing yields, and thingsattached to the earth which are to be expelled in light of the agreement of satiate. As per this definition moneyand noteworthy cases are not products and can’t be purchased and sold. Cash here means lawful delicate cash. It does notinclude old coins which are sold like products, e.g., silver rupee coins in our country.An significant claim implies an obligation ora guarantee for cash which a man may have against another and which he can recoup by suit.

Merchandise might be arranged into three sorts :

(1) Existing merchandise (2) Future Goods, and (3) Contingent Goods.

(1) Existing Goods will be merchandise which are as of now in presence and which are physically present in someperson’s ownership and possession. Existing merchandise might be it is possible that (I) Specific and Ascertained or (ii) Genericand Unascertained.

(I) Specific merchandise are those products which are distinguished and settled upon at the season of the agreement ofsale; i.e., a specific painting by a painter, a stallion called attention to and perceived as isolated from otherhorses in a stable. The term Ascertained merchandise is utilized as a part of an indistinguishable sense from Specific Goods.

(ii) Generic or Unascertained Goods are those merchandise which are not particularly recognized but rather are indicatedby portrayal. In the event that A consents to supply one pack of wheat from his godown to B, it is an agreement relating tounascertained products since it is not known which sack will be conveyed. When a specific sack isseparated from the part and making or recognized for conveyance it winds up plainly particular merchandise.

(2) Future Goods will be merchandise which the dealer does not claim or have at the season of the agreement, butwhich he will make or deliver or gain after the making of the agreement. For instance, A consent to sellto B every one of the oranges which will be delivered in his garden one year from now. This is an assention for the deal offuture merchandise.

(3) Contingent merchandise are those products which the dealer will obtain on the incident of a possibility. Anagreement to offer unforeseen merchandise can likewise be made. For instance, A’s dad has an uncommon duplicate of bookwhich is no longer in production. A plans to get it on his dad’s passing. A consents to pitch it to B for Rs.10,000 evenbefore his dad’s demise. This is an understanding for the offer of unexpected merchandise.

Dying of Goods: If in an agreement for the offer of particular merchandise, the products have, without the seller’sknowledge, died when the agreement was made, the agreement is void. Where A sold 700 bagsto B, however just 591 packs were in presence at the date of agreement, the remaining having been stolen. Inthis case B can’t be constrained to acknowledge the591 packs.

The Price: Price, which implies cash thought for an offer of products, constitutes the pith of an agreement of offer. It might be cash really paid or guaranteed to be paid appropriately as the understanding is forcash deal or credit deal. On the off chance that thought other than cash is given, it is not a sale.In a consent to sellwhen the vender winds up plainly wiped out the main cure accessible to purchaser is to guarantee for rateable profit if the buyerhas paid the cost. Be that as it may, in a deal if vender winds up plainly bankrupt, the purchaser can recoup the products from the liquidatorbecause the possession in merchandise has gone to him.The cost might be settled by the agreement or might be resolved bythe course of managing between the gatherings. Without both of these arrangements the purchaser must pay areasonable value, the measure of which is controlled by the certainties of every specific case.

Deal and contract for work and materials. An agreement of offer must be recognized from an agreement forwork and materials. The Sale of Goods Act applies to the previous and not to the last mentioned. An agreement of salecontemplates the conveyance of merchandise though an agreement for work and materials includes exercise of expertise and work by one gathering in regard of materials provided for another, the conveyance of products being onlysubsidiary or coincidental.

Sincere or Deposit Money

A sincere cash is some sum which the purchaser pays to the vender at the season of the agreement as a token of goodfaith, and as an assurance that he will satisfy his agreement. In the event that he neglects to satisfy the agreement, the sincere cash is forfeitedby the dealer, yet in the event that he satisfies the agreement the sincere or store will be dealt with as part-installment of the cost, onlythe adjust being required to be paid to make up the maximum.

Deal and Hire-Purchase Agreement

A contract buy assention is one under which a man takes conveyance of merchandise promising to pay the cost by a certainnumber of portions and, until the point that full installment is made, to pay procure charges for utilizing the products. It is in reality bailmentfor employ with an alternative to the hirer to purchase the products in his ownership on making the full installment.

विक्रय संविदा
सामान अधिनियम की बिक्री के खंड 4 के अनुसार माल की बिक्री का एक अनुबंध एक अनुबंध है, जिसके द्वारा विक्रेता को कीमत के लिए खरीदार को माल (यानी, स्वामित्व) में स्थानांतरित करने, या हस्तांतरण करने के लिए सहमत होता है। सेलम का एक अनुबंध (i) निरपेक्ष या (ii) सशर्त, अर्थात् अनुबंध के पक्षों की इच्छा के अनुसार। शब्द “अनुबंध की बिक्री” एक सामान्य शब्द है। इसमें एक ‘वास्तविक बिक्री’ के साथ-साथ ‘बेचने के लिए समझौते’ भी शामिल है। जहां माल में संपत्ति की बिक्री के अनुबंध के तहत (यानी, स्वामित्व विक्रेता से खरीदार को पारित कर दिया गया है, अनुबंध को एएसएएल कहा जाता है। जहां स्वामित्व का स्थानांतरण भविष्य की तारीख में किया जाता है, या कुछ शर्त के अधीन पूर्णतया हो, अनुबंध को बेचने के लिए एक समझौता कहा जाता है। बेचने के लिए एक समझौता बिक्री समाप्त हो जाता है जब समय समाप्त हो जाता है या इस शर्त को पूरा किया जाता है जिसके तहत सामान का स्वामित्व हस्तांतरित किया जाता है। एक किताब है। वह सही या स्वामित्व स्थानांतरित करता है बी के लिए बी.पी. के लिए 15. एक बिक्री है। जहां ए 15 रुपये के लिए दो महीने के बाद पुस्तक के स्वामित्व को बी को हस्तांतरित करने के लिए सहमत है, यह दो महीने की समय सीमा समाप्त होने पर बेचने के लिए एक समझौता है, यह बिक्री बन जाता है। एक बिक्री और एक समझौते के बीच मुख्य विभाजन यह है कि एक बिक्री में खरीदार माल का मालिक है, जबकि एक समझौते को बेचने के लिए, स्वामित्व विक्रेता से अनुबंध के समय खरीदार को पास नहीं करता है। विक्रेता निरंतर हो सकता है स्वामी जब तक समझौता बेको बेचने के लिए नहीं निर्धारित समय की समाप्ति या कुछ शर्त के पूरा होने पर वास्तविक बिक्री द्वारा एमईएस।
बिक्री का एक अनुबंध की अनिवार्यता
बिक्री का एक वैध अनुबंध निम्नलिखित अनिवार्य शामिल होना चाहिए:
(1) दो दलों: अनुबंध बनाने के लिए दो पार्टियां अर्थात् खरीदार और विक्रेता हों। तो जहां कोई व्यक्ति अपने एजेंट के माध्यम से अपना सामान खरीदता है, वहां कोई अनुबंध नहीं होता है। हालांकि, एक पार्ट-स्वामी दूसरे हिस्से के मालिकों को अपनी हिस्सेदारी बेच सकता है
(2) माल: बिक्री के अनुबंध की विषय वस्तु अचल वस्तुओं को छोड़कर किसी भी प्रकार का सामान होना चाहिए।
(3) संपत्ति का स्थानांतरण: संपत्ति उत्तीर्ण करना आवश्यक है और माल की भौतिक वितरण नहीं है।
(4) मूल्य: बिक्री के अनुबंध के लिए विचार पैसा होना चाहिए। यदि कुछ वस्तुओं को काम के लिए पारिश्रमिक के रूप में या कुछ वस्तुओं के बदले में आपूर्ति की जाती है, तो यह बिक्री के अनुबंध की राशि नहीं है।
(5) अंत में, इसमें एक मान्य अनुबंध के सभी अनिवार्य शामिल होंगे।
कैसे बनाया बिक्री का अनुबंध बिक्री के एक अनुबंध का गठन करने के लिए किसी विशेष से आवश्यक नहीं है यह किसी अन्य अनुबंध की तरह है, जिसे एक पार्टी द्वारा प्रस्तुत की जाने वाली सामान्य विधि द्वारा बनाई गई और दूसरी पार्टी द्वारा इसकी स्वीकृति इसे लिखने या मुँह के शब्द, या अंशतः लिखित रूप में और आंशिक रूप से मुंह के वचन के द्वारा किया जा सकता है यह पार्टियों के आचरण, या पार्टियों के बीच व्यवहार के पाठ्यक्रम से निहित हो सकता है।
बिक्री और अनुबंध के बीच का अंतर बेचें
1. अनुबंध की प्रकृति: बिक्री एक निष्पादित अनुबंध है, जबकि बेचना एक समझौता एक निष्पादक अनुबंध है। कुछ भी बेचने के लिए इनन एग्रीरेनेंट करना बाकी है। यह केवल तब ही बिक्री होगी जब सम्प्रेषण की शर्तों को पूरा किया जाएगा।
2. संपत्ति का स्थानांतरण: एक बिक्री में संपत्ति का हस्तांतरण तत्काल होता है, लेकिन एक समझौते के अनुसार, यह तुरंत खरीदार को पास नहीं करता है खरीदार के रूप में, बिक्री में तुरंत अच्छा मालिक बन जाता है, इसलिए जोखिम भी उसके पास जाता है लेकिन विक्रेता को बेचने के लिए एक समझौते में अभी भी मालिक बना रहता है, इसलिए जोखिम वाले ग्राहक खरीदार को नहीं गुजारते हैं और अगर सामान नष्ट हो जाता है, तो खरीदार के कब्जे में वारारे के बावजूद विक्रेता पर नुकसान कम होगा।
3. अधिकार का निर्माण: बिक्री के लिए एक समझौता ‘व्यक्ति में जूस’ यानी, केवल खरीदार के खिलाफ एक व्यक्तिगत अधिकार बनाता है, जबकि एक बिक्री ‘रिम’ में फ्यूज़ बनाता है, अर्थात, पूरी दुनिया के खिलाफ माल में सही है
4. उल्लंघन के मामले में उपचार: बेचने के लिए एक समझौते में, विक्रेता खरीदार द्वारा संविदा के गैर-निष्पादन के लिए केवल नुकसान के लिए मुकदमा कर सकता है। लेकिन बिक्री में, विक्रेता सामान की कीमत के लिए मुकदमा कर सकता है। उसके लिए अननुशक्ति का अधिकार धारक, पारगमन में रोकना और पुन: विक्रेता। विक्रेता द्वारा बिक्री के अनुबंध के उल्लंघन के मामले में, खरीदार माल की डिलीवरी या क्षति के लिए मुकदमा कर सकता है लेकिन खरीदार को बेचने के लिए एक समझौते में केवल विक्रेता के खिलाफ व्यक्तिगत उपाय
5. दिवालिएपन के परिणाम: एक बिक्री में अगर खरीदार को दिवालिया नियुक्त किया जाता है; विक्रेता को आधिकारिक रिसीवर के लिए गुड्स प्रदान करना चाहिए और अपने माल पर कीमत के लिए भुगतान के लिए अन्य असुरक्षित लेनदारों की तरह लाभप्रद लाभांश का दावा कर सकते हैं। विक्रेता को बेचने के लिए समझौते में सामान वितरित करने से इनकार कर सकते हैं जब तक कि गुड्स के लिए भुगतान न किया जाए।
बिक्री में, अगर विक्रेता को दिवालिया नियुक्त किया जाता है, तो खरीदार आधिकारिक रिसीवर से सामान प्राप्त करने का हकदार है। लेकिन इनन समझौते को बेचने के लिए, अगर खरीदार ने पहले से भुगतान विक्रेता को दिया है, तो वह केवल वांछनीय लाभांश मांग सकता है और सामानों की डिलीवरी नहीं कर सकता है।

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