Describe the ways of manifesting and identifying a research problem. Discuss the nature,characteristics and importance of formulating a research problem.
Answer – Ways of manifesting a research problem – A problem is said when we know enough that something that we really do not know. There are at least three ways in which a problem is said to reveal:
The gap in knowledge: a problem arises when there is a lack of noticeable difference or information. Suppose a community or group intends to provide psychiatric services, then two questions arise, i.e.
(i) what type of psychotherapy they should offer and
(ii) one of the different types of medical methods, Is the most effective Disease.
In this example, there is a noticeable difference in knowledge, and therefore the collection and interpretation of the data needed to fill the gap in knowledge.
Contradictory results: When many tests done in the same area are not consistent and therefore, sometimes contradictory, then a problem is to find a new answer and settle dispute.
Explaining fact: In another way in which we are aware of a problem, when we are in the possession of a ‘fact’, and we ask ourselves, “Why is this so?” When are facts in any field in the context of unexplained ones? Information, a problem is called.
Identifying a research problem –
A research problem can be identified in different ways of everyday life,
- Thinking or thinking session
- Theoretical predictions and explanations,
- Technological advances that make new research possible
- Problems suggested in research material; Or any combination of these methods.
When choosing a research problem / topic, there are many ideas to keep in mind these ideas are about interest, magnitude, measurement and clarity, level of expertise, relevance, availability of data and ethical issues. If you choose a problem without considering these issues, then maintaining the necessary motivation and interest can be very difficult, and therefore it may affect the amount of time along with its completion.
A scientific investigation begins when a researcher has already gathered some information / knowledge and this knowledge indicates that there is something we do not know. It may be that we do not have enough information to answer any questions, or it may be that the knowledge we have is in a distorted form that it can not be adequately related to the question. There is a problem here. The formulation of a problem is particularly important because it guides us in our investigation.
According to Townsend (1953) Town has a question proposed to solve a problem ‘.
According to Kirlinger (1964) inter is a questionable statement of problem statement which asks: What is the relationship between two or more types?
According to McGuigan (1964), a solvable problem is that which answers a question whose answer can be given with the use of human capacities.
After analyzing above the written definitions of a problem statement, it can be said that there are some traits of problem statement:
i) A problem statement is written clearly and clearly, usually in question form.Some examples of problem statement are given below:
- What is the relationship between IQ and Class-Room Achievement?
- What is the relationship between worry and adjustment in school going children?
- Do students learn more than lecture methodology?
ii) One problem expresses the connection between two or more variables. Such a problem allows the investigator to manipulate two or more variables to examine the effect on the second variable. For example: Does teacher reinforcement cause student improvement? In this example, a variable teacher is reinforcement and the second variable is student performance. This illustrates the problem found in the scientific study because the problem statement examines the effect of the teacher’s reinforcement on the student’s performance.
Conditions for a problem statement are:
- Problems should be tested in empirical ways
- A problem statement should be resolved.
- The data of a scientific problem should be quantitative.
- The variables related to the problem should be clear and definite.
Importance of formulating a research problem –
The formulation of a research problem is the first and most important step of the research process. It is like identifying a destination before starting the journey. As in the absence of a destination, it is impossible to identify the smallest route, in the absence of a clear research problem, a clear and economical plan is impossible. A research problem is like the foundation of a building. The type and design of the building is dependent on the foundation. If the foundation is well designed and strong, then you can expect that the building is also strong and well designed. In the case of research, the research problem works as the foundation of a research study. If it is well prepared, then you can expect to follow a good study.
According to Kerlinger (1986), if anyone wants to solve a problem, then one should know what the problem is. It can be said that a large part of the problem is knowing what someone is trying to do. You should have a clear idea of what you want to know. A research problem can take a very complex form from a very simple one.
I) The way you prepare a problem can be used,
(ii) the type of sample that can be used,
(iii) research tools which can be used or developed
(iv) and the type of analysis which Can be done.
The formulation of a problem is like one ‘input’ in a study, and ‘output’ – the quality of the content of the research report and the validity of established associations or work – is entirely dependent on it. So the famous saying about computers – ‘garbage, garbage out’ – applies to a research problem.