Discuss developmental tasks of later maturity stage.
Answer – INTRODUCTION – The period of later maturity stage starts at sixty years. At this age, most people formally retire from their jobs. They start to worry about some of their physical and psychological health and occasional anxiety. In our society, the elderly are generally not considered to be so active, those who are intellectually disturbed, are becoming narrow and give new importance to religion and so on. Many old people lose their spouse and due to which they may suffer from emotional insecurity. I have never died in old age ‘, it is a correct statement. Since old age is close to the last point of life, so death is associated with old age. Death is actually due to illness, pollution, tension and other factors that work on the body.
Developmental tasks of later maturity stage –
In view of the increase in life expectancy, the greater proportion of society is being joined in the group of older people. That is why they need greater involvement in the national plan and they should feel as an integral part of the society. Aging is often known as the period of loss and fall. However, there are both profits and losses in development over any period of life, although the profit-loss ratio becomes negative with increasing age.
The fact is that the man learns his way through life, and becomes fundamentally clear by considering the actions of the older people. They still have new experiences, and to meet new conditions. When a man retires from his possession at the age of sixty-five, his changes are better than living another ten years.
During this time, the man or his wife is very likely to experience many of the following
(i) decrease in income, (ii) going to a small house, (iii) loss of spouse by death, (iv) ) A crippled illness or accident, (v) As a result of the cost of life (vi) With a resultant change, a turn in the business cycle.
After any of these events, the situation can be changed so that the old person has to learn new ways of living. The developmental work of later maturity stage differs from people of other ages in only one fundamental honor. They include a defensive tactic that has to be seized more and more instead of holding on to life. Limitations in the physical, mental and economic areas are especially evident.
For this approach, Higgurst carried forward the following development works.
1) Adjustment to reduce physical strength and health: Physical strength decreases from age 30 to 80 years and above. Most weak is in the back and leg muscles, the muscles in the hand are less.
2) Adjustment for retirement and low income: A new lifestyle adjustment is required by retirement for low income, low activity level, and free time increase.
3) Adjustment for the death of a spouse: The elderly are not afraid of death. However, they are afraid of a great extent to die – the process of dying in pain or dying alone.
4) Establishing a clear linkage with an age group: Social convolutions are a group of family members and friends who provide security and assistance.
5) Meeting social and civil obligations: Other possible benefits in old age are related to the work of meeting social and civil obligations. For example, old people can collect knowledge about life (Baltes and Staudings, 2000) and thus can contribute to the development of young people and society.
6) Establishing a system of satisfactory physical living: The main values of looking for larger people in the housing are: (i) calm, (ii) privacy, (iii) freedom of action, (iv) proximity to relatives and friends, (v) Proximity to residences of its own cultural group, (vi) cheapness, (vii) transport lines and communal institutions – libraries, shops, films, churches, etc.