Discuss the theory of observation learning.
Answer – Observation learning refers to the process of changing a person’s behavior simply by being exposed to the behavior of another person. This second person is known as the model. Modeling, according to Bandura, refers to the behavior of the person observed and not to the behavior of the person who follows it. The child observes the behavior of the parents and the parents are role models. The child imitates the behavior of the parents. In the Bandura version, the parents model a specific behavior and the child imitates.
In the theory of observation learning, Bandura mentions a series of reasons, which are:
a) Last reinforcement, traditional behaviorism wing.
b) the promised reinforcements (incentives) that we can imagine.
c) indirect reinforcement: see and remember the model that is being reinforced
Interpretation of the experiment: The results can be interpreted to show that observation learning occurs when children see an aggressive model. Learning occurs regardless of the condition. But if the children would execute the learned behavior in real life it would depend on the observed consequences of the model. However, if the immediate situation reinforces the aggressive action, it would facilitate the execution of the aggression learned independently of the consequences. In other words, you learn to attack when you see aggressive models. But he may or may not show this aggressive behavior outwardly. If he would perform the aggressive act it would depend on motivation.
Vicarious Conditioning : Bandura noted that human subjects who observed a model that expresses a fear conditioned to a naturally neutral object learn to fear the same. It was observed even in monkeys. Cute babies learned to be afraid of a toy snake because their mothers were taught to be afraid. This type of learning of emotional reactions through the imitation of the emotions of others is called “vicar conditioning”. Bandura noted that a lot of emotions we feel towards people and objects are not born from direct experience, but through this type of indirect conditioning. We imitate not only the manifest behavior, but also the emotional reactions of the model.