Q. 2. Examine the problems of urbanization with special reference to India.
Ans. The main cause of over urbanization, according to current analysis, is the pressure of population on land in the rural areas in developing countries. Economic pressure or “push” in the countryside increasingly pushes out people to the cities in search of employment and livelihood. The rural urban migration that results in over urbanization is primarily a consequence of this “push” from the countryside, rather than the demand for labour by developing economic activity in the towns and cities, or what is termed their “pull.” phenomenon of a rural “push” resulting in urban growth is questionable.
The policies of urban development and housing in India have come a long way since 1950s. The pressure of urban population and lack of housing and basic services were very much evident in the early 1950s. In some cities this was compounded by migration of people from Pakistan. However, the general perception of the policy makers was that India is pre-dominantly an agricultural and rural economy and that there are potent dangers of over urbanization which will lead to the drain of resources from the countryside to feed the cities.