Question – Explain the different methods and types of research.
Answer – Psychological researches have been classified on the basis that on the basis of that purpose, the extent to which they meet the need for scientific process. There are two types of psychological research – non-experimental and experimental research.
Types of Research –
Non-Experimental Research –In non-experimental researches, the independent variable is not manipulated, the researcher does not have complete control over the conditions of non-experimental research studies. Non-experimental researches are covered by descriptive, historical, correlational, qualitative and Ex-post fact research.
1 Historical Research – Historical researches relate to past events related to each other or current events. Basically, historical research (or historiography) answers the question: What is the nature of the events happening in the past? For example, one wants to examine the nature of treatment of mental illness or how the attitude towards work and family can change. All these questions require the detective work of a hisreastorian, in the form of testing a hypothesis with finding and collecting relevant data and then, with any other research effort.
2 Descriptive Research – Descriptiveresearch describes and explains what is it. It is related to the situations or relationships that exist, the practices which are popular, which are beliefs or approaches, the processes are going on; Effects which are being felt or which are the trends The approach is directed to identify various characteristics of research problems and to make it conducive to further research. Descriptiveresearch describes the characteristics of an existing event. Descriptiveresearch provides a detailed picture of an event that you are interested in to explore.
3 Correlational Research –Descriptive and historicalresearch provides a picture of events that are currently happening or have happened in the past. Researchers often only want to go beyond description and start discussing this relationship that some incidents can happen to each other. To answer questions about the relationships between variables or events, the most likely type of research is called the correlative event.
4 Qualitative Research – The general purpose of qualitative researchmethods is to examine human behavior in the social, cultural and political context in which they are. It is done through many devices, such as interviews, historical methods, case studies, and ethnographic 5 3 and usually results in qualitative (or non-numerical) primary data. In other words, the qualitative researcher makes a special comment compared to the number of times (frequency) of an interviewer (but not only) interested in the content of speech speech
5 Ex-post-facto Research – In such research, independent variables or variables have already occurred, in which the researcher begins with observation of a dependent variable or variable. Then he studies the independent variable for its possible relationships, depending on the variable or variables dependent in the retrospective variable. The most important difference is the control between experimentalresearch and ex-post-actual research. In the past, there is a manipulation control on the independent variable of the investigator, while later this control is not possible, more than that, randomization is not possible.
Experimental Research – The experimental research controls the manipulation of variables which allows researchers to determine the cause and effect relationship.
1 True Experimental Research – In true experimentalresearch, participants are assigned to groups based on certain criteria, which are often called treatment variables or treatment conditions. For example, you want to compare the effects of two different techniques to reduce obsessive-compulsive disorder behavior among adults. The first technique involves behavioral therapy and the second is not. Once adults are assigned to the groups and the program is complete, you may want to find any difference between the two groups with respect to the effects of therapy on the number of tedious-compulsive behaviors.
2 Quasi Experimental Research – In quasi-experimental studies, the researcherdoes not have such a high level of control because people have already indirectly assigned those groups (such as the type of social class, type of abuse, gender, type of injury) for which You are testing the effect. In theseresearch, participants have been given groups based on some predefined characteristics or quality. Gender, race, age, grade in school, neighborhood neighborhood, type of job, and even experience are also examples of this.
Methods of Research –
1 Non-Experimental Methods – There are three types –
1 Naturalistic Observation- In a naturalistic observation, a scientist observes behavior in the real world settings and does not attempt to manipulate or control the situation.Researchers perform natural observations in homes, day-care centers, etc.
2 Archival Research –In this method the researchersdo not actually collect data themselves, but they get data from public records, archives etc.Researchonly analyzes data efforts to get some conclusions from them.
3 Content Analysis – Content analysis, sometimes known as document analysis, is a method of systematic, communication examination or current record or documents.
2 Surveys – Survey methods are widely used to collect scientific information. Includes a collection of data by asking questions and recording people’s answers. They are used for various purposes on a continuous goal of suchresearch, to estimate population characteristics. For example, the goal of the survey may be to determine the percentage of people who specifically support anti-social posts on social issues, such as the reservation provision for women in the job Good examples of census and opinion poll conducted by various agencies.
3 Field Studies – Field study is pre-post scientific inquiry, whose purpose is to find relationships and conversations between sociological, psychological and educational variables in the real social structures. In scientific studies, large or small, they systematically examine relationships and examine hypotheses, which are pre-post facto, which are made in real life situations, they will be considered as Field X-Post Factors, Those who will be living in real life situations, are considered field studies.
4 Case Studies – A case study can use interviews, observational and psychological tests. It is a valuable researchstrategy in the field of clinical psychology and human development. Using a case study, a researcheris able to see a person in depth. Those unwanted aspects of a person’s life which can not be repeated by practical or ethical reasons are caught by case studies. With the help of case study, you can try to understand the fantasies, hoping that the fear of painful experiences that help a person or a person understand the behavior of the person. Case studies provide a narrative or detailed description of events occurring in a person’s life.