Explain various methods of collecting praimary data along with the merits and limitations of each of them.

Following are given the strategies for gathering of such information:

(i) Direct individual examination.

(ii) Indirect oral examination.

(iii) Through nearby journalists.

(iv) Mailed Questionnaire.

(v)Schedules sent through enumerators.

1. Coordinate individual Investigation:


Here, the agent himself visits the people those are wellspring of the information and gathers fundamental data either through meeting with the people concerned or through perception of the information on the spot. This strategy is appropriate where concentrated investigation of any marvel is required.

This technique has many benefits and faults which are given as following:


1. The information is more solid as they are acquired specifically.

2. Touchy inquiries can be stayed away from.

3. There is possibility of more reaction in it.

4. The inquiries can be balanced by the standard of the sources.

5. There is consistency in information.

Bad marks:

1. It is not appropriate where the field is extremely huge and wide.

2. It is especially costly.

3. It needs a substantial number of enumerators.

4. It requires long investment to gather the information from every one of the people.

5. It is absolutely subjective in nature, along these lines the accomplishment of examination depends for the most part knowledge, aptitude, consideration, understanding, trustworthiness and different characteristics of specialists.


This technique is reasonable when:

1. Territory of examination is constrained.

2. A high level of exactness is required.

3. The consequence of examination is to be kept mystery.

4. Range of examination is homogeneous i.e. having same qualities.

Precautionary measures:

1. Specialist ought to be prepared and gifted.

2. Specialist ought not have individual inclination.

3. Specialist ought to be pleasant and inquiries ought to be basic.

4. Examiner must have a place with the way of life of the source.

2. Roundabout Oral Investigation:

Here, the examiner gathers the information in a roundabout way by talking people who are known to be near the first people or the frequency. This technique is embraced when the first people are not observed or observed to be hesitant to give the required data. In this technique a rundown of inquiries is readied, and the witnesses are welcomed and made to answer the inquiries. The appropriate responses are recorded by the examiners.

This strategy has its benefits and faults moreover:


1. It can cover a wide territory.

2. It needs less time, vitality and cash.

3. Outsider does not hide the certainties.

4. Knowledge, expertise and judgment of the examiner brings precision.

5. It is basic and helpful.

Negative marks:

1. The data acquired from alternate people may not be solid.

2. The outsiders might be one-sided.

3. The witness picked may not be legitimate for the reason or not master in this field.


This technique is reasonable when:

1. The immediate way to deal with sources does not exist.

2. The individual can’t be depended upon

3. The territory of examination is extensive.

4. The data is required, is kept mystery from individual.

Precautionary measures:

1. Witnesses ought not be one-sided about the subject.

2. Respondent or witness ought to have satisfactory learning about the individual, whose data is to be gotten.

3. Number of witnesses ought to be huge.

4. A cross check must be attempted by examiner.

3. Data through Local Correspondents:

In this strategy, the specialist does not work but rather selects nearby operators or enumerators in various parts of the zone. These operators or enumerators are made a request to gather data and transmit it to the agent. This strategy is frequently received by government, semi-government and greater private foundations to gather the data for any reason.

Following are the benefits and bad marks of this strategy:


1. This strategy is shabby or conservative.

2. There is economy of time and work in this strategy.

3. This strategy can be utilized where the range of request is wide.

4. Nature of information is better as enumerators are prepared.

Negative marks:

1. Information are not dependable which are gathered by this strategy.

2. On the off chance that high level of precision is required this technique is not embraced.

3. The information are not unique if gathered by this technique.

4. Gathered information need consistency since they are gathered by various reporters and they vary in quality and taste.


This technique is reasonable when:

(i)Rough and surmised gauges are required.

(ii)The data is needed at normal interims.

(iii) The field of request is wide.


1. Journalists must be prepared.

2. No. of journalists ought not be little.

3. Journalists ought not enter their own perspectives.

4. Journalists ought to be inside from the way of life of the witnesses.

4. Surveys through Mail:

An essential strategy for the gathering of information utilized for vast territory is that of polls. In this technique, a rundown of inquiries is readied identifying with the issue under scrutiny, is printed and afterward conveyed to the witnesses through post. It is asked for that it might be come back to the specialist appropriately topped off. A covering letter is additionally sent with the poll. A stamped self tended to envelope is additionally appended.

Following are the benefits and bad marks of this technique:


1. There is the economy of time, work and riches.

2. This technique is utilized if the field of request is wide.

3. There is consistency in the information since witnesses are specifically included,

Bad marks:

1. Data can be gathered from the informed people as it were.

2. Its reaction is dubious.

3. Supplementary inquiries can’t be asked as inquiries are settled.

4. In the event that survey is extreme, it may not be reacted.

5. There are odds of non-reaction because of lack of concern of state of mind.


This strategy is reasonable when:

(i) The source is instructed.

(ii) The region of scope is wide.


1. Inquiries ought to be in a decent grouping.

2. Inquiries ought not be close to home, as source won’t have any desire to reply.

3. An ask for letter must be joined.

4. It ought to be joined by a self tended to, stamped envelope to guarantee answer.

5. Timetables Sent through Enumerators:

In this technique, rundown of inquiries or timetables are sent to the witnesses through the enumerators. They read the inquiries to the sources and record their answers on similar timetables. At to start with, enumerator clarifies the points and goals of the enquiry and approaches them for co-operation.

The contrast between the sent poll strategy and this technique is that in the previous case the sources themselves record the appropriate responses while for this situation, the enumerators record the data. This strategy is utilized by governments and research foundations like National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) and so forth.

Like alternate strategies, this strategy likewise has benefits and bad marks:


1. Data can be got even from uneducated people.

2. This data is more solid and right.

3. It covers wide region.

4. It is unaffected by the individual predisposition of the agents.

5. There are less odds of non-reactions as enumerator’s visits actually.


1. It is expensive on the grounds that enumerators must be paid.

2. It is tedious as each source is gone by.

3. It requires prepared enumerators, which are not effectively accessible.

4. The individual inclination of enumerator may prompt wrong conclusions.

5. It must be utilized by huge associations.


This strategy is reasonable when:

1. Zone to be secured is wide.

2. No additional inquiry is should have been inquired.

3. Administration of enumerators is shoddy and effectively accessible.

Safety measures:

1. Enumerators ought to be prepared.

2. He ought to be taught to the required subject.

3. He may have a place with same area or culture.

4. He ought not be one-sided

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