IGNOU BGDG-172 is a course under the Bachelor of Arts (BA) program offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). To successfully complete the course and be eligible to appear for the exams in June 2024, students are required to submit the IGNOU BGDG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 for the academic year 2023-24.

Assignments FOR JULY 2023 AND JAN 2024 ADMISSION




Below are the details of the IGNOU BGDG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24:

  • Program: BGDG-172 (Bachelor of Arts – BA)
  • Course Code: BGDG-172
  • Session: July 2023 – January 2024
  • Submission Dates:
    • Assignment 2023-24: Last date for submission – 30th April 2024
    • Assignment 2023-24: Last date for submission – 30th October 2024

Assignment Submission: Students are advised to submit the IGNOU BGDG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 as per the specified schedule. The assignments must be submitted in soft copy/PDF format through the designated portal or email, as instructed by the university.

Guidelines for Preparing IGNOU BGDG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24: While preparing the IGNOU BGDG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24, students must adhere to the following guidelines:


  1. Defining Sexuality and Analyzing its Social Construction

Sexuality refers to the complex interplay of physical, emotional, romantic, and sexual attractions that individuals experience. It encompasses a wide range of orientations and identities, including heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, asexuality, and more. Sexuality is an essential aspect of human nature and plays a significant role in shaping relationships, personal identity, and social interactions.

The concept of sexuality is indeed socially constructed. While human biology plays a role in determining certain aspects of sexuality, the meaning and expression of sexuality are heavily influenced by societal norms, cultural beliefs, and historical contexts. Individuals’ understanding of their sexual identities and their ability to express their desires are largely shaped by the prevailing norms and values of their society.

Social Construction of Sexuality:

  1. Heteronormativity: Many societies historically adhere to heteronormativity, which assumes that heterosexuality is the default and dominant sexual orientation. This norm marginalizes and stigmatizes non-heterosexual identities. For example, until relatively recently, homosexuality was considered a mental disorder in some societies, leading to discrimination and repression of LGBTQ+ individuals.
  2. Gender Roles and Expectations: Societal gender roles play a crucial role in shaping how individuals express their sexuality. Traditional gender roles often dictate that men should be sexually aggressive and pursue multiple partners, while women should be passive and maintain their sexual purity. These stereotypes can limit individuals’ sexual agency and self-expression.
  3. Taboos and Norms: Different cultures have varying attitudes towards sex and sexuality. Some societies have strict taboos surrounding premarital sex, extramarital affairs, or non-heterosexual relationships, leading to repressive environments that can be harmful to individuals with diverse sexual orientations.
  4. Media and Education: Media, including television, movies, and advertising, often reinforce and perpetuate societal norms and stereotypes about sexuality. They can either challenge or reinforce existing beliefs. For instance, media representation of LGBTQ+ characters as three-dimensional individuals rather than caricatures can contribute to positive changes in societal attitudes.
  5. Historical Context: Sexual attitudes and norms have evolved over time. For example, the sexual revolution of the 1960s challenged traditional views on sexuality, advocating for sexual freedom and exploration. This shift in cultural attitudes had a significant impact on subsequent generations’ understanding and acceptance of diverse sexualities.
  6. Intersectionality: Social construction also interacts with other dimensions of identity, such as race, ethnicity, and class, shaping how sexuality is experienced and perceived. For instance, LGBTQ+ individuals from marginalized communities may face unique challenges and forms of discrimination due to the intersection of their sexual orientation with other aspects of their identity.

In conclusion, sexuality is a complex and multifaceted aspect of human existence, and its understanding and expression are undeniably influenced by societal norms and cultural beliefs. Acknowledging the social construction of sexuality is crucial to promote inclusivity, challenge harmful stereotypes, and foster a more accepting and understanding society.

  1. Gender Portrayal in Advertisements and its Connection to Constructed Femininity and Masculinity

Advertisements are powerful mediums for shaping and reinforcing cultural norms and values, including how gender roles are perceived and enacted. They often portray constructed notions of femininity and masculinity to appeal to target audiences and reinforce existing social expectations. Below are some examples of how men and women are typically portrayed in advertisements:

1. Gender Stereotyping: Advertisements often present stereotypical representations of men and women. Women are frequently depicted as nurturing, sensitive, and focused on their appearance, while men are portrayed as strong, dominant, and rational. For instance, cleaning product ads often show women doing household chores, while automotive ads feature men driving powerful cars.

2. Body Image: Advertisements often promote unrealistic and idealized body images for both genders. Women are often portrayed as slender with flawless skin, while men are shown with muscular and chiseled physiques. These representations can lead to body image issues and reinforce societal pressures to conform to certain beauty standards.

3. Product Targeting: Advertisements often associate specific products with gender roles. For example, cosmetic products are heavily marketed towards women, perpetuating the idea that appearance is primarily a female concern. On the other hand, advertisements for tools and gadgets are frequently targeted at men, reinforcing the notion that these products are more suitable for them.

4. Reinforcing Traditional Roles: Advertisements can reinforce traditional gender roles, suggesting that women should focus on domestic tasks and childcare, while men should be the breadwinners and decision-makers. This can perpetuate inequalities and limit individuals’ choices and opportunities.

5. Sexualization: Women’s bodies are often sexualized in advertisements, using them as objects to sell products. This objectification reduces women to mere commodities, reinforcing harmful attitudes towards women and their bodies.

6. Lack of Diversity: Advertisements often lack diversity, especially when it comes to gender representation. This exclusion perpetuates a limited and narrow understanding of gender roles and identities.

Impact of Advertisements on Society:

The constant exposure to such gendered portrayals in advertisements can reinforce traditional gender norms and expectations. It can lead to individuals internalizing these stereotypes, influencing their behavior, aspirations, and self-perception. For example, young girls may grow up believing that their appearance is their primary value, while boys might feel pressure to suppress emotions and prioritize physical strength.

However, it’s essential to note that there has been a growing awareness of the harmful impact of gendered advertisements. As discussions on gender equality and inclusivity have gained momentum, some advertisers are now challenging stereotypes and promoting more diverse and empowering representations of men and women. This shift can play a crucial role in breaking down rigid gender norms and fostering a more inclusive and equal society.

In conclusion, advertisements play a significant role in shaping society’s understanding of femininity and masculinity. By presenting stereotypical and constructed views of gender roles, advertisements can perpetuate harmful attitudes and reinforce inequalities. On the other hand, responsible and progressive advertising can challenge these norms, promote diversity, and contribute to positive societal changes regarding gender roles and identities.

  1. Construction of Masculinity:

The construction of masculinity refers to the ways in which society defines and shapes the expectations, roles, behaviors, and characteristics attributed to men and boys. It is a social and cultural process that varies across different societies and historical periods. Masculinity is not an inherent biological trait but rather a socially constructed concept that is learned and reinforced through various institutions like family, education, media, and religion.

Traditional notions of masculinity often emphasize traits such as physical strength, emotional stoicism, dominance, and competitiveness. Men are often expected to conform to these rigid gender roles, suppressing emotions and displaying aggression as a sign of strength. This construction can have harmful consequences, such as promoting violence as a means of problem-solving and discouraging emotional expression and vulnerability.

The construction of masculinity can also perpetuate harmful attitudes towards women and LGBTQ+ individuals. Toxic masculinity, for instance, fosters a sense of entitlement, objectification of women, and the idea that men should be dominant in relationships.

Over the years, there have been efforts to challenge and redefine masculinity, promoting healthier and more inclusive forms of manhood. These efforts aim to break free from limiting stereotypes and encourage men to embrace empathy, emotional intelligence, and more egalitarian attitudes towards gender roles.

  1. Division of Labor and its Impact on Women’s Day-to-Day Life:

The division of labor refers to the way tasks and responsibilities are allocated among different individuals or groups within a society. This division often occurs along various lines, such as gender, class, and ethnicity. Historically, gender division of labor has been a significant aspect of societies, with certain tasks and roles assigned based on traditional gender norms.

In many societies, women have been predominantly assigned roles related to caregiving, housework, and emotional labor, while men have been assigned roles related to paid work, decision-making, and leadership. This gendered division of labor perpetuates gender inequalities and has profound impacts on women’s day-to-day lives.

  1. Time and energy burden: Women often end up spending a significant portion of their time and energy on unpaid domestic and caregiving tasks. This can lead to exhaustion, limited opportunities for personal development, and hindered career prospects.
  2. Economic disparity: Women’s disproportionate responsibility for unpaid labor contributes to the gender wage gap. The unequal distribution of paid and unpaid work often results in lower earnings for women, leading to economic dependence and financial insecurity.
  3. Limited agency and decision-making power: When women are primarily responsible for household chores and caregiving, they may have less time and influence in decision-making processes both within the household and in the broader community.
  4. Reinforcement of gender norms: The gender division of labor reinforces traditional gender roles, making it challenging for women and men to break free from these expectations and pursue unconventional career paths or family arrangements.

Efforts to challenge the gender division of labor include advocating for shared caregiving responsibilities, promoting policies that support work-life balance, and dismantling stereotypes that limit individuals based on their gender.

  1. Dalit Feminist Critique of Family Ideology and its Relation to Caste in India:

Dalit feminism in India offers a critical perspective on family ideology and its intersection with the caste system. The caste system in India has traditionally assigned rigid social roles to individuals based on their birth, with Dalits (formerly known as “untouchables”) occupying the lowest rungs of the social hierarchy. Family ideology in India, rooted in patriarchy and caste-based norms, has played a significant role in perpetuating caste-based discrimination and gender inequality.

  1. Intersectionality of oppression: Dalit feminists argue that the oppression faced by Dalit women is unique as they experience the effects of both caste-based discrimination and gender-based discrimination. The traditional family structure reinforces this intersectionality by subjugating Dalit women within their communities and in their homes.
  2. Inequality within the family: Dalit women often face discrimination and violence within their families, perpetuated by patriarchal norms. They are often relegated to low-status positions and are denied agency and decision-making power.
  3. Marriage practices: The caste system influences marriage practices, with endogamy being prevalent, leading to the preservation of caste-based divisions. Dalit women face discrimination when marrying into higher-caste families, and they may also experience violence and exclusion within their marital homes.
  4. Limited access to resources: The caste system restricts Dalit women’s access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities, further marginalizing them within society and perpetuating the cycle of poverty.
  5. Struggle for dignity and rights: Dalit feminist movements have emerged to challenge the intersecting oppressions faced by Dalit women, advocating for gender justice and social equality. These movements seek to empower Dalit women to assert their rights and fight against caste-based discrimination.

In conclusion, Dalit feminist critique exposes how family ideology reinforces caste-based discrimination and gender inequality in India, leading to the marginalization and oppression of Dalit women within their homes and communities. The struggle for gender justice and social equality remains an important aspect of Dalit feminist movements in India.

  1. Surrogacy: Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman (surrogate) agrees to carry and give birth to a child on behalf of another individual or couple (intended parents). There are two primary types of surrogacy: traditional and gestational. In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate’s egg is fertilized with the sperm of the intended father or a donor through artificial insemination. In gestational surrogacy, the embryo is created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the eggs and sperm of the intended parents or donors and then implanted into the surrogate’s uterus.

Surrogacy raises complex ethical, legal, and social issues. While it offers a solution for individuals or couples struggling with infertility or medical conditions, it also presents concerns related to exploitation, commercialization of women’s bodies, and the emotional challenges involved. Different countries have varying regulations on surrogacy, some allowing it under certain conditions, others banning it altogether. It is crucial to strike a balance between protecting the rights of all parties involved and facilitating access to reproductive options for those who need them.

  1. Work: Work is the physical or mental effort undertaken to accomplish a task or produce a product. It can be paid or unpaid, formal or informal, and may encompass a wide range of activities, including labor, services, or creative endeavors. Work is an essential aspect of human life, as it provides individuals with a means to earn a living, achieve personal fulfillment, and contribute to society’s development.

Work takes various forms in different societies and cultures, influenced by economic systems, technological advancements, and societal norms. Traditional definitions of work often revolved around activities related to agriculture, manufacturing, or manual labor. However, with the rise of the service-oriented and knowledge-based economy, work now includes a broader spectrum of occupations, such as information technology, finance, healthcare, and creative industries.

In contemporary discussions, work-life balance and job satisfaction have become crucial considerations. The nature of work continues to evolve, driven by globalization, automation, and the pursuit of more fulfilling and flexible careers.

  1. Glass ceiling & Double Burden: The ‘glass ceiling’ is a metaphor used to describe the invisible barriers and limitations that prevent women and other marginalized groups from advancing to higher positions in the corporate or professional hierarchy, despite having the necessary qualifications and skills. These barriers are often rooted in discriminatory practices, gender stereotypes, and biases that hinder career progression, resulting in a lack of representation at the upper echelons of organizations.

On the other hand, ‘double burden’ refers to the additional workload and responsibilities faced by women who are expected to balance both professional careers and domestic duties. Even as women strive to excel in their careers, societal expectations and traditional gender roles may still place the primary responsibility for childcare, household chores, and caregiving on them.

Both glass ceiling and double burden have significant implications for gender equality and women’s empowerment. Addressing these issues requires promoting inclusive work environments, challenging stereotypes, implementing family-friendly policies, and fostering equal opportunities for all, regardless of gender.

  1. Impacts of Gender-Based Violence (GBV) on Women: Gender-Based Violence (GBV) has severe and lasting effects on women physically, psychologically, and socially. The physical consequences of GBV can range from injuries and disabilities to life-threatening conditions. Additionally, survivors may suffer from psychological trauma, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

GBV also perpetuates gender inequalities and restricts women’s participation in public life, education, and the workforce. Women who experience violence often face stigma and discrimination, hindering their access to support and justice. This can lead to social isolation and marginalization.

Furthermore, GBV affects women’s reproductive health, as it can result in unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and other reproductive complications. In some cases, GBV can lead to femicide, the intentional killing of women because of their gender.

Addressing GBV requires comprehensive efforts, including legal reforms, awareness campaigns, support services for survivors, and promoting gender equality to challenge the root causes of violence against women.

  1. Folk Media: Folk media refers to the traditional forms of communication and entertainment that are deeply rooted in the cultural heritage and customs of a specific community or region. It includes various art forms, performances, and storytelling that have been passed down through generations. Folk media is often characterized by its oral tradition, simplicity, and community-based nature.

Examples of folk media include folk songs, folk dances, folk theater, puppetry, storytelling, and local art and craft. These forms of media play a vital role in preserving cultural identity, sharing historical knowledge, and passing down moral and ethical values to new generations.

Folk media has been a means of expressing collective emotions, celebrating festivals, and communicating social and political messages. In many cases, it serves as a platform for marginalized communities to voice their concerns and aspirations.

While modern media has gained prominence, folk media remains significant in promoting cultural diversity and enriching the tapestry of human expression. Efforts to preserve and promote folk media are essential to safeguarding cultural heritage and encouraging intergenerational connectivity.

Download IGNOU BGDG-172 Study Material: To assist in the preparation of the IGNOU BGDG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24, students can access the study material provided by IGNOU. The study material offers valuable insights, references, and examples related to the course topics.

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