THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION – The history of Homo- sapiens sapiens is one of progressive acquisition of new skills. They learnt to make tools combining wood and stone. They learnt fishing, boating and swimming. It was around this time that the Holocene era began. Weather became warmer causing different kinds of changes across the globe. For example in West Asia dry deserts replaced forests. In Europe on the other hand snow melted away and forests grew. Faced with these climatic changes our foraging ancestors devised new forms of adaptation. These new forms of adaptation moved along four different trajectories. Most of the communities continued their hunting- gathering life.

They simply added new marine species and various seeds into their food kitty. In many areas forests and rivers could supply them food in plenty. Also many of these groups preferred the freedom and leisure of the hunting gathering way of life. That is why even in AD 1500 foragers occupied fully one third of the globe. This included Australia, most of North America, as well as large tracts of South America, Africa, and Northeast Asia. Even today hunter- gatherers live on in forty countries, in the presence of hundreds of thousands of descendants a generation or two removed from a foraging way of life.

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