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4. Peripetia

Peripetia is a concept in ancient Greek drama, particularly in tragedy, referring to a sudden reversal of fortune experienced by the protagonist. It is a crucial moment in the plot where the character’s situation changes dramatically, often from a position of strength to one of weakness or vice versa. This reversal of circumstances serves to heighten the emotional impact of the story and contribute to the overall tragic or dramatic effect. Peripetia is an essential element in the development of a tragic plot, leading the protagonist further down the path of their ultimate downfall.

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