Assignments FOR JAN 2023 ADMISSION


ASSIGNMENT IGNOU BEVAE-181 Solved Assignment 2023


SERVICE TYPE Solved Assignment (Soft Copy/PDF)


Course Code


SESSION January 2023
SUBMISSION DATE  31st March 2023

30th September 2023


Which assignments do you have to submit to appear for the June 2023 exam?

Assignment 2023 (Last date 30 April 2023)

Which assignments do you have to submit to appear for the December 2023 exam?

Assignment 2023 (last  date 30 October 2023)


Answer - External environment, Internal environment and Natural environment बाहरी वातावरण, अंदर का वातावरण और प्रकृतिक वातावरण
Answer - Oceans, lakes/ponds, rivers, forest, grasslands, deserts महासागरों, झीलों / तालाबों, नदियों, जंगल, घास के मैदान, रेगिस्तान
Answer - Orchards, plantations, sanctuaries, parks, etc. बाग, बागान, अभयारण्य, पार्क, आदि
Answer - Weathering involves physical, chemical, and biological agencies. अपक्षय में भौतिक, रासायनिक और जैविक एजेंसियां शामिल हैं।
Answer - determinism, possibilism and environmentalism. नियतत्ववाद, आधिपत्यवाद और पर्यावरणवाद।
Answer - determinism, possibilism and environmentalism. नियतत्ववाद, आधिपत्यवाद और पर्यावरणवाद।
Answer- Environmental, social and economic. पर्यावरणीय, सामाजिक और आर्थिक।
Lucien Febvre लुसिएन फ़ेवरे
Answer - New volcanic flows, islands, deltas, dunes, bare rocks and in newly formed lakes. प्राथमिक अनुक्रम नए ज्वालामुखीय प्रवाह, द्वीपों, डेल्टास, टीलों, अनाच्छादित चट्टानों और नवगठित झीलों
Answer - Extractive values and Non-extractive values निष्कर्षण मूल्य और गैर-निष्कर्षण मूल्य
Answer - Non-Consumptive, Aesthetic and Cultural and Religious गैर उपभोग्य उपयोग मूल्य, विकल्प मूल्य और अस्तित्व मूल्य
Answer - streams, ponds, lakes, human-made reservoirs and canals, and freshwater wetlands. जलधाराएँ, तालाब, झीलें, मानव निर्मित जलाशय और नहरें, और मीठे पानी के आर्द्र क्षेत्र
Answer - in the form of solar thermal and solar photovoltaic technologies सौर तापीय और सौर फोटोवोल्टिक प्रौद्योगिकियों के रूप में
Answer - 5th India is the 5th largest producer of wind power in the world. भारत दुनिया में पवन ऊर्जा का 5वां सबसे बड़ा उत्पादक है।
Answer -Wind energy is being used for water pumping, battery charging and power generation. पवन ऊर्जा का उपयोग जल पंपिंग, बैटरी चार्जिंग और बिजली उत्पादन के लिए किया जा रहा है।


QUESTION. IGNOU BEVAE-181 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023 कब तक जमा करना है ?

  • जूलाई 2022 में एडमिशन लेने वालों को 3O APRIL 2023 तक।
  • JAN 2023 में एडमिशन लेने वालों को 3O OCTOBER 2023 तक।

1. Why is the ecological significance of forests more important in the present-day context?

The ecological significance of forests has become more crucial in the present-day context due to several reasons:

a) Biodiversity Conservation: Forests are home to a vast array of plant and animal species, many of which are endemic and endangered. Preservation of forests is essential for maintaining biodiversity, as they provide a habitat for numerous species.

b) Carbon Sequestration: Forests play a vital role in mitigating climate change by acting as carbon sinks. They absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and store it as biomass, thus reducing greenhouse gas levels.

c) Climate Regulation: Forests influence local and global climates by affecting temperature, precipitation, and humidity. They help maintain a balance in weather patterns, preventing extreme climate events like floods and droughts.

d) Water Resources: Forests act as natural watersheds, regulating the flow of water in rivers and streams. They enhance groundwater recharge and prevent soil erosion, benefiting both ecosystems and human communities.

e) Ecosystem Services: Forests provide essential ecosystem services like pollination, nutrient cycling, and soil fertility, which are vital for agricultural productivity and human well-being.

f) Economic Benefits: Forests contribute to the economy through timber, non-timber forest products, ecotourism, and other forest-based industries, providing livelihoods for many people.

g) Health and Well-being: Forests offer recreational spaces and promote mental and physical well-being, reducing stress and anxiety in urban populations.

h) Disaster Mitigation: Forests act as natural buffers against natural disasters like landslides, cyclones, and avalanches, protecting nearby communities.

In the face of environmental challenges like climate change, loss of biodiversity, and natural disasters, the conservation and sustainable management of forests have become even more critical for the well-being of the planet and its inhabitants.

2. Answer the following questions in about 125 words each.

a) Characteristics of Western Ghats as Biodiversity Hotspots:

The Western Ghats, a mountain range along the western coast of India, is a recognized biodiversity hotspot due to its unique characteristics:

  1. Species Richness: The Western Ghats harbor an incredibly high level of biodiversity, with thousands of plant and animal species, many of which are found nowhere else on Earth.
  2. Endemism: It is a hotspot for endemic species, meaning many species are exclusive to this region and not found elsewhere.
  3. Diverse Ecosystems: The Ghats encompass diverse habitats, including tropical rainforests, grasslands, montane forests, and wetlands, supporting a wide range of flora and fauna.
  4. Elevation Gradient: The altitudinal variation provides varied microclimates, contributing to the rich biodiversity.
  5. Cultural Significance: The Western Ghats hold cultural and religious importance for several indigenous communities, influencing traditional practices and knowledge related to biodiversity conservation.
  6. Threatened Status: The region faces various threats like deforestation, habitat fragmentation, poaching, and invasive species, making conservation efforts imperative.

b) Why hydropower is regarded as the best source of energy?

Hydropower is often considered one of the best sources of renewable energy due to several advantages:

  1. Clean and Renewable: Hydropower generates electricity without producing greenhouse gases or other air pollutants, reducing carbon emissions and combating climate change.
  2. Abundant Resource: Rivers and water bodies, the source of hydropower, are abundant in many regions, providing a consistent and reliable energy supply.
  3. Energy Storage: Hydropower plants with reservoirs can store water and adjust electricity generation based on demand, acting as a flexible energy source.
  4. Long Lifespan: Hydropower plants have a long operational lifespan, typically lasting 50 to 100 years, ensuring a stable energy supply for decades.
  5. Low Operating Costs: Once constructed, hydropower plants have relatively low operating and maintenance costs compared to fossil fuel-based power plants.
  6. Flood Control and Irrigation: Hydropower projects often offer additional benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, enhancing water management.
  7. Ecosystem Enhancement: Some small-scale hydropower projects can coexist with natural ecosystems, providing fish passages and environmental benefits.

Despite these advantages, the construction of large-scale dams may lead to environmental and social concerns, including habitat destruction and displacement of local communities, warranting careful planning and sustainable practices.

c) Importance of Biomass among Renewable Resources:

Biomass is a renewable resource whose importance has been increasing due to its various benefits:

  1. Sustainable Energy Source: Biomass can be converted into biofuels, biogas, and other forms of renewable energy through processes like anaerobic digestion, fermentation, and combustion, providing an alternative to fossil fuels.
  2. Carbon Neutrality: Biomass energy is considered carbon-neutral because the carbon dioxide released during burning is reabsorbed by plants during their growth, maintaining a balance in the carbon cycle.
  3. Waste Management: Biomass energy utilizes organic waste materials, such as agricultural residues, food waste, and animal manure, promoting waste management and reducing landfill burden.
  4. Local Energy Production: Biomass energy can be produced locally, promoting decentralization and energy self-sufficiency, particularly in rural areas.
  5. Employment Opportunities: The biomass sector creates jobs in farming, collection, processing, and energy production, contributing to rural development.
  6. Flexibility: Biomass can be used for heat, electricity, and transportation, providing versatile energy options.
  7. Biochar Production: Biomass can also be converted into biochar, a stable form of carbon that enhances soil fertility and sequesters carbon.

However, it is essential to ensure sustainable biomass management, prevent deforestation, and avoid the use of biomass from unsustainable sources to maximize its environmental benefits.

d) How does air pollution affect atmospheric processes?

Air pollution significantly impacts atmospheric processes in several ways:

  1. Global Warming: Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from human activities, trap heat in the atmosphere, leading to global warming and climate change.
  2. Air Quality: Particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contribute to air pollution, leading to smog, acid rain, and respiratory problems.
  3. Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances released into the atmosphere break down the ozone layer, leading to the thinning of the ozone layer, particularly in polar regions.
  4. Weather Patterns: Air pollution affects weather patterns by altering the absorption and reflection of sunlight, leading to localized changes in temperature and precipitation.
  5. Cloud Formation: Aerosols from pollution can act as cloud condensation nuclei, affecting cloud formation and properties, potentially altering rainfall patterns.
  6. Ocean Acidification: Airborne pollutants can be deposited into the oceans, leading to ocean acidification, negatively impacting marine life and ecosystems.
  7. Feedback Loops: Some air pollutants, such as black carbon (soot), can darken ice and snow surfaces, reducing their reflectivity and accelerating melting in polar regions, contributing to further warming.

To mitigate these adverse effects, it is essential to reduce emissions of air pollutants and transition to cleaner energy sources and sustainable practices.

e) What is the Disposal of Waste? Why segregation of waste is needed?

Disposal of waste refers to the process of managing and disposing of waste materials generated by human activities. It involves collecting, transporting, treating, and disposing of waste to minimize its impact on the environment and human health.

Segregation of waste is essential for effective waste management and involves separating different types of waste at the source itself. The reasons for waste segregation are:

  1. Recycling: Segregation allows recyclable materials like paper, plastic, glass, and metals to be separated, facilitating their recycling and reducing the demand for virgin resources.
  2. Reduced Landfill Burden: Segregating organic waste from other waste streams allows for composting, reducing the amount of biodegradable waste sent to landfills.
  3. Resource Recovery: Segregation enables the recovery of valuable materials from waste, contributing to resource conservation and circular economy principles.
  4. Prevention of Pollution: Segregating hazardous and non-hazardous waste ensures that harmful substances are handled, treated, and disposed of properly to prevent environmental pollution.
  5. Health and Safety: Proper waste segregation reduces health risks for waste workers and prevents accidents and mishaps related to hazardous waste handling.
  6. Waste-to-Energy: Segregating waste enables the efficient processing of non-recyclable and non-compostable waste for energy recovery through incineration or waste-to-energy plants.
  7. Environmental Protection: By segregating waste, we can minimize environmental contamination and protect natural resources.

Overall, waste segregation is a crucial step in responsible waste management, promoting sustainability and environmental conservation.

3. Explain the human-environment relationship by taking examples of biotic and abiotic components?

The human-environment relationship refers to the intricate interactions and interdependencies between humans and their surrounding environment, including both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components. Examples of this relationship can be seen in various aspects:

Biotic Components:

  1. Agriculture: Humans cultivate crops and rear animals for food, relying on the soil (abiotic) and biodiversity (biotic) of the environment.
  2. Deforestation: Human activities lead to deforestation, affecting the habitat (biotic) of many plant and animal species, and disrupting the ecosystem.
  3. Urbanization: As humans build cities and urban areas (abiotic), they modify the landscape, impacting the habitat and behavior of wildlife (biotic).
  4. Biodiversity Conservation: Humans engage in conservation efforts to protect endangered species (biotic) and maintain ecosystem balance.

Abiotic Components:

  1. Climate Change: Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, alter the composition of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (abiotic), causing global warming and affecting ecosystems (biotic).
  2. Water Pollution: Industrial and domestic waste (abiotic) can contaminate rivers, lakes, and oceans, negatively affecting aquatic life (biotic).
  3. Air Pollution: Emissions from vehicles and industries (abiotic) contribute to air pollution, affecting human health and ecosystems (biotic).
  4. Mining: Extracting minerals and resources (abiotic) alters the landscape, impacting the soil and biodiversity (biotic) of the region.

The human-environment relationship is complex and dynamic, with human actions often having profound effects on both biotic and abiotic components. Sustainable practices and responsible stewardship of the environment are essential to maintain a balanced and healthy coexistence.

4. “As human civilization progressed, man started altering the environment in the pursuit of creating an economic, social, and cultural environment of his own choice. This slowly resulted in the depletion of natural resources and degradation of the environment.” Explain it in the context of national legislations of water acts?

As human civilization advanced, the quest for economic development, improved living standards, and cultural progress led to extensive alteration of the environment, particularly with regards to water resources. This has been evident in the context of national legislations related to water acts in many countries.

Water Acts and Alteration of Environment:

  1. Water Diversions: In the pursuit of irrigation for agriculture and urban water supply, many water acts and policies authorized large-scale diversions of water from rivers and natural water bodies. This often led to the depletion of water in downstream areas and adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems.
  2. Dam Construction: Water acts facilitated the construction of dams and reservoirs for hydropower generation, flood control, and water storage. While these projects provided benefits, they also resulted in the submergence of large areas of land, displacement of communities, and disruption of natural river flows, affecting aquatic biodiversity and river ecosystems.
  3. Water Pollution: The focus on industrial and urban development led to water pollution from industrial discharges, untreated sewage, and agricultural runoff. Many water acts initially failed to address the issue adequately, leading to the degradation of water quality and ecosystem health.
  4. Groundwater Overexploitation: Water acts, at times, did not consider sustainable groundwater management, leading to excessive pumping of groundwater for irrigation and industrial use, causing aquifer depletion and land subsidence.

Environmental Degradation and Remedial Measures:

  1. Depletion of Aquatic Ecosystems: Uncontrolled water usage and pollution from industrial and agricultural sources contributed to the decline of freshwater ecosystems, affecting fish populations and other aquatic organisms.
  2. Water Scarcity: Altered water courses and pollution reduced the availability of clean water for both humans and ecosystems, resulting in water scarcity in many regions.
  3. Legislative Reforms: Over time, the shortcomings of earlier water acts were recognized, leading to legislative reforms and policies focused on sustainable water management, ecosystem conservation, and pollution control.
  4. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM): The concept of IWRM emerged as a holistic approach to balance water use for economic, social, and environmental needs, emphasizing participatory governance and ecosystem conservation.
  5. Environmental Protection: Modern water acts now include provisions for environmental flows, ensuring that sufficient water is maintained in rivers to support ecosystems and preserve biodiversity.

In conclusion, while the alteration of the environment through water acts has historically led to environmental degradation, the recognition of environmental concerns has resulted in progressive legislations aimed at sustainable water management and the protection of aquatic ecosystems.

5. “Biosphere reserves are internationally recognized areas established to promote and demonstrate a balanced relationship between humans and the Biosphere.” Elaborate this statement in the context of conservation of nature?

Biosphere reserves are designated areas recognized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to promote the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable development, and environmental education. The main goal of biosphere reserves is to foster a harmonious relationship between humans and the biosphere, emphasizing the importance of balancing conservation efforts with socio-economic development. This balance is achieved through various key aspects:

1. Biodiversity Conservation: Biosphere reserves are chosen for their exceptional biodiversity, incorporating a wide range of ecosystems and species. These reserves act as natural laboratories for studying biodiversity and its conservation.

2. Zoning and Management: Each biosphere reserve is divided into different zones with varying levels of protection and sustainable use. Core areas are strictly protected for conservation, buffer zones allow for limited human activity, and transition zones encourage sustainable development.

3. Sustainable Development: Biosphere reserves promote sustainable development practices that respect the carrying capacity of the ecosystems and do not compromise the integrity of the environment.

4. Research and Monitoring: Biosphere reserves encourage scientific research and monitoring programs to understand ecological processes, assess environmental changes, and inform conservation strategies.

5. Environmental Education: These reserves serve as centers for environmental education, promoting awareness and understanding of the value of biodiversity and the need for sustainable development.

6. Community Engagement: Biosphere reserves actively involve local communities in decision-making processes, ensuring that their needs and traditional knowledge are considered in conservation and development activities.

7. Demonstration Effect: By effectively integrating conservation and development, biosphere reserves serve as models to demonstrate how human activities can coexist harmoniously with nature.

8. International Collaboration: Being internationally recognized, biosphere reserves facilitate collaboration among countries to address global environmental challenges and share best practices in biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.

Conservation of Nature: Biosphere reserves exemplify the idea that nature conservation can be successful when humans are actively engaged in its protection and sustainable use. By recognizing the vital role of humans as stewards of the environment, biosphere reserves emphasize that it is possible to strike a balance between meeting human needs and conserving the natural world.

6. Explain the following terms in about 60 words each:

a) Seed Bank: A seed bank is a facility or storage system where seeds of various plant species are collected, preserved, and stored for future use. Seed banks serve as repositories of genetic diversity and are essential for conserving plant species, especially those threatened with extinction or critical for agriculture and ecosystem restoration.

b) Incineration: Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves burning solid waste at high temperatures. It converts waste materials into ash, flue gas, and heat. Incineration is used for waste reduction, energy recovery, and the destruction of hazardous waste, but it raises concerns about air pollution and emission of harmful substances.

c) Biological Oxygen Demand: Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed by microorganisms while decomposing organic matter in water. It indicates the water quality and the level of organic pollution. Higher BOD levels indicate higher pollution and reduced dissolved oxygen availability for aquatic organisms.

d) Public Health: Public health refers to the science and practice of promoting and protecting the health and well-being of communities and populations. It involves disease prevention, health education, policy development, and efforts to improve the overall health of society through various interventions and programs.

7. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each.

a) What is a lentic and lotic ecosystem? Explain these two with suitable examples.

Lentic Ecosystem: Lentic ecosystems are standing water ecosystems characterized by relatively still or slow-moving water. They include various types of water bodies, such as ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. Lentic ecosystems are diverse habitats that support a wide range of plant and animal species. The water in lentic ecosystems may vary from shallow and nutrient-rich to deep and oligotrophic. These ecosystems are more susceptible to pollution and eutrophication due to reduced water movement.

Example: A pond is a classic example of a lentic ecosystem. It often contains a variety of aquatic plants, algae, insects, and fish, providing a suitable habitat for waterfowl and amphibians.

Lotic Ecosystem: Lotic ecosystems are flowing water ecosystems, such as rivers, streams, and creeks. They are characterized by continuous water movement, which results in high oxygen levels and diverse habitats. Lotic ecosystems exhibit a gradient of water flow, from fast-moving rapids to slow-moving meanders. They support a diverse range of aquatic organisms adapted to varying flow rates and substrates.

Example: A river is an example of a lotic ecosystem. It can have different zones, such as riffles (shallow and fast-moving sections), pools (deeper and slow-moving sections), and floodplains (areas flooded during high water events). These zones provide different habitats for various aquatic species.

b) What is ecological succession? Explain the types of succession with suitable diagrams.

Ecological Succession refers to the gradual process of change in the composition and structure of a biological community over time. It occurs in response to changes in the environment or disturbances. There are two main types of ecological succession:

  1. Primary Succession: Primary succession occurs in an entirely new and barren environment, such as a newly formed volcanic island or a bare rock surface left after glacial retreat. It starts with pioneer species like lichens and mosses, which slowly break down rocks and contribute to soil formation. Over time, more complex plant species, followed by animals, establish, and the ecosystem becomes more diverse and stable.

Diagram of Primary Succession:

Bare Rock → Lichens and Mosses → Grasses and Shrubs → Trees → Forest Ecosystem
  1. Secondary Succession: Secondary succession occurs in an area that has experienced a disturbance, such as a forest fire, logging, or agriculture abandonment. In this case, the soil and some remnants of the previous community remain. Grasses and shrubs are usually the first to colonize, followed by small trees and eventually a mature forest.

Diagram of Secondary Succession:

Disturbed Area (e.g., Forest Fire)Grasses and ShrubsSmall TreesMature Forest Ecosystem

Ecological succession is a natural process that leads to the development of stable and complex ecosystems over time. It plays a crucial role in ecological restoration and understanding ecosystem dynamics.

c) Explain the biocentrism and ecocentrism in the context of human’s attitude towards nature?

Biocentrism is an ethical perspective that considers all living organisms to have intrinsic value and moral standing. According to biocentrism, all living beings have the right to exist, and humans should consider the well-being of other species in their actions and decision-making. Biocentrism places significant importance on individual organisms and their right to a dignified existence.

Ecocentrism, on the other hand, shifts the focus from individual organisms to the ecosystem as a whole. It considers the entire ecosystem as the primary unit of moral consideration. Ecocentrism emphasizes the interconnectedness and interdependence of all living and non-living components within an ecosystem and advocates for the protection and preservation of ecosystems for their intrinsic value and ecological integrity.

Human’s Attitude towards Nature:

  1. Anthropocentrism: Anthropocentrism is a human-centric attitude that places humans at the center of moral consideration. It prioritizes human needs and desires above those of other species or ecosystems, often leading to the exploitation of nature for human benefit.
  2. Biocentrism and Ecocentrism: Biocentric and ecocentric perspectives offer alternative ways of looking at nature, focusing on the intrinsic value of all living beings or the ecosystem as a whole. Both perspectives advocate for sustainable and ethical interactions with nature, considering the long-term well-being of all living organisms and ecosystems.
  3. Balancing Perspectives: While anthropocentrism has historically dominated human attitudes towards nature, there is an increasing recognition of the importance of biocentrism and ecocentrism in achieving environmental conservation and sustainability. Balancing these perspectives can lead to a more harmonious relationship between humans and nature, promoting biodiversity conservation, and ensuring the health and resilience of ecosystems.

8. Explain the causes of ozone depletion? How do ultraviolet rays affect human health, animals, plants, micro-organisms, water, and air quality?

Causes of Ozone Depletion:

Ozone depletion primarily results from the release of human-made chemicals known as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). The main ODS are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform. When these chemicals are released into the atmosphere, they eventually reach the stratosphere, where ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun breaks them down. This process releases chlorine and bromine atoms, which then catalytically destroy ozone molecules.

Impact on Human Health:

  • Increased UV radiation can cause skin cancer, cataracts, and other eye disorders in humans.
  • Weakened immune systems due to UV exposure can make individuals more susceptible to infectious diseases.
  • Prolonged exposure to high UV levels can lead to premature aging of the skin.

Impact on Animals:

  • UV radiation can harm animals by causing skin cancer and other skin disorders.
  • Some marine organisms, such as plankton and fish larvae, are sensitive to increased UV levels, affecting food chains and ecosystem dynamics.
  • UV exposure may disrupt reproductive cycles in certain animal species.

Impact on Plants:

  • Increased UV radiation can damage plant DNA, leading to reduced growth and reproduction.
  • Crop yields may decrease, affecting agriculture and food production.
  • UV radiation can affect the structure and function of plant ecosystems.

Impact on Micro-organisms:

  • UV radiation can harm microbial populations in soil and water, affecting nutrient cycling and soil fertility.
  • Some micro-organisms play crucial roles in ecosystem functioning, and their decline can disrupt ecosystem balance.

Impact on Water:

  • Increased UV radiation can alter aquatic ecosystems by damaging phytoplankton, zooplankton, and aquatic plants.
  • UV radiation can reduce the dissolved oxygen content in water, affecting aquatic organisms.

Impact on Air Quality:

  • Ozone depletion in the stratosphere contributes to the formation of ground-level ozone (tropospheric ozone), a harmful air pollutant that affects respiratory health and damages crops and vegetation.

To protect the ozone layer and mitigate the harmful effects of increased UV radiation, international agreements like the Montreal Protocol have been established to phase out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances.

9. “Education for environmental awareness is essential for the younger generation as well as for the older generation.” Explain the statement with suitable examples.

Education for environmental awareness is crucial for both the younger and older generations to foster a deeper understanding of environmental issues, promote responsible behavior, and empower individuals to take sustainable actions. The significance of environmental education can be exemplified through the following points:

1. Behavior Change: Environmental education instills a sense of responsibility and respect for nature, leading to behavioral changes such as reducing waste, conserving resources, and adopting eco-friendly practices.

2. Conservation Efforts: By educating younger and older generations about biodiversity, ecosystems, and the importance of conservation, individuals are more likely to actively participate in wildlife protection and habitat restoration.

3. Climate Action: Environmental education highlights the impact of human activities on climate change, motivating individuals to support climate action initiatives and reduce their carbon footprint.

4. Sustainable Development: Awareness about sustainable practices can help individuals make informed choices about energy usage, transportation, and consumption, contributing to sustainable development.

5. Eco-conscious Citizenship: Educated individuals are more likely to advocate for environmentally friendly policies, participate in environmental activism, and vote for candidates with strong environmental agendas.

6. Environmental Justice: Environmental education fosters an understanding of environmental inequalities and the need for environmental justice, leading to more inclusive and equitable environmental efforts.

7. Empowerment: Knowledge about environmental challenges empowers individuals to become environmental stewards, spreading awareness, and driving positive change in their communities.


  • Younger Generation: Environmental education in schools can include lessons on ecosystems, waste management, and climate change. Students may engage in tree-planting drives, participate in local clean-up campaigns, and lead initiatives to reduce plastic waste.
  • Older Generation: Workshops, seminars, and community events can educate adults on sustainable living practices, renewable energy, and wildlife conservation. This generation can support renewable energy adoption, advocate for wildlife protection, and mentor younger individuals in environmental initiatives.

In conclusion, education for environmental awareness transcends generational boundaries and equips individuals with the knowledge and motivation needed to address pressing environmental challenges, creating a more sustainable and ecologically conscious society.

10. “Water Harvesting is one of the effective measures to combat drought.” Explain this statement with suitable arguments.

Water Harvesting refers to the collection, storage, and management of rainwater or surface runoff for future use. It is an effective strategy to combat drought and ensure water availability during periods of water scarcity. The statement can be elaborated with the following arguments:

1. Drought Resilience: Water harvesting helps build drought resilience by capturing and storing rainwater during periods of abundant rainfall. This stored water can be used during dry spells and droughts when natural water sources may become depleted.

2. Groundwater Recharge: Water harvesting techniques like percolation pits and recharge wells allow rainwater to infiltrate the ground, replenishing aquifers and increasing groundwater levels. This contributes to long-term water availability during droughts.

3. Agriculture Support: In agricultural regions, water harvesting can be used to create small ponds or tanks that provide water for irrigation during dry periods, ensuring crop survival and food security.

4. Drinking Water Supply: Water harvesting systems, such as rooftop rainwater harvesting, can be utilized to collect water for domestic use during droughts, especially in areas with unreliable water supply systems.

5. Ecosystem Support: Water harvesting interventions can help maintain the health of ecosystems during droughts by ensuring water availability for wildlife, vegetation, and aquatic habitats.

6. Reduced Dependence on Surface Water: By capturing and storing rainwater, water harvesting reduces reliance on surface water sources, which may be affected by drought-induced reductions in water levels.

7. Climate Change Adaptation: With climate change leading to more frequent and severe droughts in some regions, water harvesting becomes an essential adaptation measure to cope with changing precipitation patterns.

8. Cost-Effective Solution: Water harvesting is often a cost-effective approach compared to large-scale water supply projects, making it accessible and viable for local communities and small-scale farmers.


  • India’s Watershed Development Programs: India has implemented watershed development projects that incorporate water harvesting structures to combat drought and improve rural water availability.
  • Rainwater Harvesting in Australia: In regions like Australia, rainwater harvesting systems are widely used to store rainwater for various purposes, including drinking water supply and agricultural irrigation.
  • Terracing and Contour Bunds: In hilly terrains, terracing and contour bunds are used to harvest rainwater, preventing soil erosion and enhancing water availability during dry spells.

In conclusion, water harvesting is an effective and sustainable measure to combat drought, enhance water availability, and promote water security during periods of water scarcity. Its implementation at various levels, from individual households to larger landscapes, can significantly contribute to drought resilience and sustainable water management.

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17 Responses

  1. Ruchi jha says:

    July 2019 k assignment submit krne ka date kya hai bevae k liy ye 30 sep 2019 hai ya change hoa hai

  2. Ruchi jha says:

    Plz upload the questions of assignment for bevae

  3. Prakash Bist says:

    Gys u all students who r pursuing BCOMG program from IGNOU have to summit ur all subjects assignments within 30 april 2020.And classes will start from January.

    • Rahul Bhadra says:

      Thanks you , another thing to ask where can I find other assignments for free

      • Team Guffo says:

        To find another assignment….. type the code of the assignment in the search bar……

        • Taha Surury says:

          But we cant see search bar option will you please provide guidelines.

    • Happy says:

      Where can we attend classes . Can you plz give the website ? Plz

  4. Sonu Kumar Giri says:

    मुझे हिन्दी में चाहिये bEAVAE-181

  5. Md Yusuf says:

    sir hindi me chahiye

  6. Pooja jha says:

    Sir environmental studies k assignment bhi bnte h kya BA 1st year m

  7. Rambabu says:

    Sir BAG Course me 08 subject hai sabhi Ka assignment banana prega kya

  8. Suman says:

    mujhe pura solved assignment q ni dikhai de rha h

  9. suman says:

    part 2 q ni dikh rha

  10. Vandama says:

    Sir laboratory vale subject k bhi assignment bnte h

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