FREE IGNOU BHIC-109 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022-23
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For the June exam 2023 and December exam 2023
For Admission in July 2022 and January 2023
Below are the details of the IGNOU BHIC-109 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022-23:
- Program: BHIC-109 (Bachelor of Arts – BA)
- Course Code: BHIC-109
- Session: July 2023 – January 2024
- Submission Dates:
- Assignment 2023-24: Last date for submission – 30th April
- Assignment 2023-24: Last date for submission – 30th October
Assignment Submission: Students are advised to submit the IGNOU BHIC-109 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022-23 as per the specified schedule. The assignments must be submitted in soft copy/PDF format through the designated portal or email, as instructed by the university.
Guidelines for Preparing IGNOU BHIC-109 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022-23: While preparing the IGNOU BHIC-109 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022-23, students must adhere to the following guidelines:
IGNOU BHIC-109 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022-23 –
- Critically Examine the Nature of the Mughal State:
The Mughal Empire, which existed from the early 16th century to the mid-18th century, was one of the most significant and influential dynasties in Indian history. The nature of the Mughal state can be analyzed from various perspectives, including its political structure, administrative policies, economic system, and cultural impact.
a) Political Structure: The Mughal state was an absolute monarchy with a strong central authority vested in the emperor. The emperor held significant powers and ruled with the title of “Padshah” or “Shahenshah.” The Mughal rulers claimed their legitimacy through their lineage traced back to the Mongol warrior, Genghis Khan, and the Central Asian conqueror, Timur. The concept of divine kingship was prevalent, where the emperor was seen as God’s representative on Earth.
b) Administrative Policies: The Mughal state was characterized by a well-structured administrative system, which was instrumental in managing the vast territories under their control. The empire was divided into provinces called “subahs,” which were further subdivided into districts known as “sarkars.” Each province was governed by a “subedar” or “governor” appointed by the emperor, and they were responsible for maintaining law and order, collecting taxes, and overseeing the administration.
Akbar, the third Mughal emperor, is particularly renowned for his efforts to establish a centralized administrative system that promoted religious tolerance and inclusivity. His policy of “Sulh-i-kul” (universal peace) aimed to treat all subjects equally, regardless of their religious affiliations.
c) Economic System: The Mughal state had a well-organized revenue system based on the land revenue collection known as “zabt.” The state would assess the agricultural output of a region and levy taxes accordingly. The zamindars (landlords) were responsible for collecting taxes from peasants and passing them on to the state. This system allowed the Mughal state to accumulate significant wealth, contributing to the grandeur of the empire.
Trade and commerce also thrived under the Mughals, with major trade routes connecting India to the rest of the world. The empire’s wealth attracted traders and merchants from different parts of the world, fostering economic prosperity.
d) Cultural Impact: The Mughal era is often referred to as a “golden age” in Indian history, as it witnessed a flourishing of art, literature, and architecture. The Mughal emperors were great patrons of art, and their courts attracted poets, scholars, and artists from various regions. Akbar’s reign, in particular, is known for its cultural diversity and intellectual exchanges.
The Mughal architecture, characterized by grand monuments like the Taj Mahal and the Red Fort, blended Persian, Indian, and Central Asian influences. The empire’s cultural legacy continues to be a significant part of India’s heritage.
e) Challenges and Decline: While the Mughal state reached its zenith under Akbar and his successors Jahangir and Shah Jahan, it faced various challenges that contributed to its eventual decline. The vastness of the empire made it challenging to control remote regions effectively. Moreover, Aurangzeb’s religious policies, marked by intolerance towards non-Muslims, led to internal strife and rebellion.
Additionally, the empire faced economic challenges due to excessive military expenditures and corruption within the administrative system. External invasions by Afghan and Persian rulers further weakened the empire.
In conclusion, the Mughal state was a remarkable period in Indian history marked by a strong centralized administration, cultural achievements, and economic prosperity. Its legacy continues to influence India’s cultural and architectural heritage. However, internal and external challenges, along with declining leadership, eventually led to the decline and disintegration of the empire.