FREE IGNOU BHIC-131 Solved Assignment 2023-24

IGNOU BHIC-131 is a course under the Bachelor of Arts (BA) program offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). To successfully complete the course and be eligible to appear for the exams in June 2024, students are required to submit the IGNOU BHIC-131 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 for the academic year 2023-24. Below are the details of the IGNOU BHIC-131 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24:

Assignments FOR JULY 2023 AND JAN 2024 ADMISSION




IGNOU BHIC-131 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 Submission: Students are advised to submit the IGNOU BHIC-131 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 as per the specified schedule. The assignments must be submitted in soft copy/PDF format through the designated portal or email, as instructed by the university.

Guidelines for Preparing IGNOU BHIC-131 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24: While preparing the IGNOU BHIC-131 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24, students must adhere to the following guidelines:


Answer the following in about 500 words each.
1) Explain archaeological excavation. Discuss some prominent archaeological sites in the Indian subcontinent.

Archaeological Excavation: Unearthing the Past – Archaeological excavation is a fundamental method used by archaeologists to uncover and analyze the remains of past human activities and civilizations. This process involves systematically digging into the ground and carefully recording the artifacts, structures, and other materials found. The primary goal of archaeological excavation is to gather information about the lifestyles, cultures, and histories of ancient societies. It allows researchers to piece together the puzzle of our past by examining physical evidence that has endured through time.

The process of archaeological excavation begins with careful planning. Archaeologists select a site based on historical records, survey data, and remote sensing techniques. Once a site is chosen, the excavation team establishes a grid system to create a reference framework for recording the location of artifacts and features. The excavation itself involves removing layers of soil, or “strata,” in a systematic manner. This layer-by-layer approach helps establish a chronological sequence of events, as older materials are found in lower strata and newer materials in higher layers.

During excavation, artifacts such as pottery, tools, jewelry, and human remains are unearthed. These artifacts are meticulously cleaned, cataloged, and studied to understand their cultural significance, technological advancements, and social practices. Structural features like walls, foundations, and hearths are also documented to reconstruct the layout and architecture of ancient settlements. Additionally, soil samples are collected for scientific analysis, including pollen studies, which reveal information about the ancient environment and vegetation.

Prominent Archaeological Sites in the Indian Subcontinent: Unveiling History’s Riches

  1. Mohenjo-daro: Located in present-day Pakistan, Mohenjo-daro is one of the most iconic archaeological sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Excavated in the 1920s, it provides valuable insights into the urban planning, sewage systems, and advanced architecture of the Harappan society around 2500 BCE.
  2. Harappa: Also situated in Pakistan, Harappa is another key site of the Indus Valley Civilization. It showcases well-organized streets, brick houses, and a complex drainage system. The discovery of standardized weights suggests a sophisticated trade network.
  3. Sanchi: Located in Madhya Pradesh, India, Sanchi is renowned for its Buddhist stupas and monasteries. The Great Stupa is a symbol of ancient Buddhist art and architecture, featuring intricate carvings and depictions of the life of Buddha.
  4. Ajanta and Ellora Caves: These cave complexes in Maharashtra, India, house stunning rock-cut Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain temples and monasteries. The caves contain intricate sculptures and murals that provide insights into the religious and artistic practices of different eras.
  5. Hampi: Situated in Karnataka, India, Hampi was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. The site showcases impressive temple complexes, marketplaces, and residential areas, offering a glimpse into the grandeur of medieval Indian architecture.
  6. Sarnath: Located near Varanasi, India, Sarnath is a significant Buddhist site where Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon. The Dhamek Stupa and other structures stand as important markers of Buddhist heritage.
  7. Kalibangan: This site in Rajasthan, India, is associated with the Indus Valley Civilization. Excavations have revealed a well-planned town with a unique water management system, offering insights into early urban planning.

These archaeological sites provide windows into the past, offering valuable knowledge about ancient societies, their cultures, technologies, and interactions. Through careful excavation and study, archaeologists piece together the puzzle of history, helping us better understand the roots of human civilization in the Indian subcontinent.

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