1. Plunder of Mathura and Somnath by Mahmud:

Mahmud of Ghazni, a powerful ruler from the Ghaznavid dynasty, conducted a series of military expeditions into the Indian subcontinent during the 11th century. Two of the most notorious incidents associated with Mahmud’s campaigns were the plunder of the cities of Mathura and Somnath. In 1018, Mahmud attacked Mathura, a prominent center of Hindu culture and religion. The city’s temples, including the revered Vishnu temple, were looted and destroyed. In 1025, Mahmud’s forces targeted the famous Somnath temple in Gujarat, dedicated to Lord Shiva. The temple was not only a religious center but also a symbol of wealth and prestige. Its riches were plundered, and the temple was razed to the ground. These plundering expeditions were not only driven by a desire for wealth but also had political and religious motivations. They led to the weakening of regional powers and the disruption of cultural and religious institutions. Mahmud’s invasions left a lasting impact on the historical memory of India and its perception of foreign invaders.

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