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To successfully complete the course and be eligible to appear for the exams in June 2024, students are required to submit the IGNOU BPSE-142 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 for the academic year 2023-24. Below are the details of the IGNOU BPSE-142 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24:

Assignments FOR JULY 2023 AND JAN 2024 ADMISSION





Answer the following in about 500 words each.

1. Compare India’s foreign policy under UPA and NDA –II regimes. 

Foreign Policy Under UPA Regime in India – The foreign policy of a nation is a reflection of its strategic priorities, diplomatic engagements, and international relationships. Under the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) regime in India, which spanned from 2004 to 2014, the country’s foreign policy witnessed certain distinct characteristics.

1. Pragmatic Multilateralism: The UPA government emphasized a pragmatic approach towards multilateral institutions and global partnerships. India aimed to enhance its role in international forums like the United Nations (UN), World Trade Organization (WTO), and various regional groupings. The emphasis was on collaborating with diverse nations to address global challenges such as climate change, terrorism, and economic disparities.

2. Focus on Neighboring Countries: The UPA government laid emphasis on nurturing relationships with neighboring countries through initiatives like the Look East Policy, which aimed to strengthen economic and strategic ties with Southeast Asian nations. Efforts were also made to improve relations with Pakistan, though progress remained uneven due to ongoing security concerns.

3. Nuclear Diplomacy and Non-Proliferation: The UPA regime saw significant advancements in India’s nuclear diplomacy. The Indo-US Civil Nuclear Agreement, a landmark development, marked a shift in global perceptions of India’s nuclear status. This agreement facilitated greater international nuclear cooperation while addressing concerns about non-proliferation.

4. Economic Diplomacy: The UPA government sought to leverage India’s growing economic prowess to enhance its global standing. The emphasis was on attracting foreign investment, boosting trade, and advocating for a fair global economic order that accommodated the interests of developing nations.

5. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: The UPA administration recognized the significance of India’s cultural diversity and rich heritage as a source of soft power. Initiatives like promoting yoga, Ayurveda, and Indian films helped create positive perceptions of India and fostered people-to-people connections.

Foreign Policy Under NDA-II Regime in India

The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government, in its second term from 2014 onwards, has continued to shape India’s foreign policy with distinct features that differentiate it from the UPA era.

1. Assertive Diplomacy: The NDA-II regime exhibited a more assertive and proactive approach in international affairs. The “Neighborhood First” policy, which builds on the UPA’s focus on neighboring countries, prioritizes closer ties with countries in South Asia, reflecting India’s desire to exert influence in its immediate region.

2. Strategic Partnerships: The NDA-II government emphasized forging strategic partnerships with key global players like the United States, Japan, and Israel. These partnerships encompass security, defense cooperation, and economic collaboration, aiming to elevate India’s stature on the global stage.

3. Economic Initiatives: The “Make in India” campaign, launched by the NDA-II government, is aimed at transforming India into a global manufacturing hub. This initiative has implications for India’s foreign policy as it seeks to attract foreign investment, create jobs, and enhance the country’s economic clout.

4. Geopolitical and Security Concerns: With growing geopolitical uncertainties, the NDA-II regime has been vigilant about safeguarding India’s security interests. The government’s response to issues like cross-border terrorism and border disputes has been characterized by a strong stance and prioritization of national security.

5. Digital Diplomacy and Technology: The NDA-II government has recognized the role of technology and digital diplomacy in modern foreign relations. Initiatives like “Digital India” and “e-diplomacy” aim to harness digital tools for diplomacy, economic engagement, and public outreach.


While both the UPA and NDA-II regimes share certain common elements in India’s foreign policy, such as a focus on economic growth and regional stability, they also exhibit distinct approaches driven by the geopolitical context and evolving global dynamics. The UPA era saw pragmatic multilateralism, nuclear diplomacy, and soft power initiatives shaping India’s interactions with the world. The NDA-II government, on the other hand, has focused on assertive diplomacy, strategic partnerships, and safeguarding security interests amid increasing geopolitical challenges. Both periods have contributed to India’s evolving role as a key player in international affairs, with each government leaving its unique imprint on the country’s foreign policy landscape.

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