3. Critically Examine India’s Neighbourhood Policy:

India’s neighbourhood policy aims to foster stability, cooperation, and economic integration in its surrounding region. However, the effectiveness of this policy has faced challenges:

a) Mixed Success: India’s neighbourhood policy has yielded mixed results. While it has successfully cultivated positive relations with some neighbors like Bhutan and Bangladesh, tensions and conflicts persist with others, including Pakistan and Nepal.

b) Security Concerns: Geopolitical rivalries and security concerns have hindered comprehensive cooperation. India’s relationship with Pakistan is marred by issues like terrorism and the Kashmir dispute, affecting broader regional cooperation.

c) China’s Influence: China’s growing influence in South Asia through projects like the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and engagement with other neighbors complicates India’s efforts to maintain a dominant role in the region.

d) Economic Integration: Economic cooperation, including initiatives like the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), has faced challenges due to regional politics and bilateral conflicts.

e) People-to-People Ties: Strengthening people-to-people ties through cultural exchanges, trade, and connectivity can help foster better relations, but these efforts require sustained commitment.

In conclusion, India’s neighbourhood policy is a crucial component of its foreign relations. While there have been successes, the policy faces challenges related to security concerns, geopolitical dynamics, and varying levels of cooperation among neighboring countries. Overcoming these challenges requires a balanced approach that addresses both India’s strategic interests and the concerns of its neighbors.


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