5. Short Notes:

(a) The Janapadas: The Janapadas were ancient territorial divisions in India during the Vedic period (around 1500-500 BCE). These were early political and administrative units that marked the transition from tribal societies to more organized and structured states. The term “Janapada” translates to “foothold of a tribe” or “territory.” The Janapadas emerged as larger units comprising multiple tribes and clans, and they formed the foundation for the eventual emergence of larger political entities known as Mahajanapadas. The rise of Janapadas reflected increased agricultural activity, the growth of settled life, and the need for better governance and administration.

(b) The Kushana City at Sirsukh: Sirsukh, located in modern-day Uttar Pradesh, India, was an ancient city associated with the Kushana Empire (1st to 3rd century CE). The city’s archaeological remains provide insights into the urban planning and architecture of the Kushana period. The site features a grid layout of streets, reflecting organized urban planning. It also includes structures like residential complexes, bathhouses, and administrative buildings. The city’s location along trade routes highlights the Kushana Empire’s engagement in long-distance trade and cultural exchanges. Artifacts found at Sirsukh offer valuable information about the material culture, artistic styles, and religious practices of the Kushana civilization.

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