FREE IGNOU MHI-10 Solved QUESTION Paper DECEMBER 2022

 

Section—II

6. Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, and Shahjahanabad as Mughal Capital Cities: The Mughal dynasty, known for its architectural marvels and administrative prowess, established several capital cities, each with its own unique characteristics and contributions.

Agra: Agra was one of the earliest Mughal capital cities and served as the heart of the empire under emperors like Akbar and Jahangir. It is renowned for the majestic Taj Mahal, a symbol of love and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Agra Fort, another iconic structure, showcases a blend of Persian, Islamic, and Indian architectural styles. Agra’s significance as a cultural and administrative center is reflected in its splendid architecture and strategic location along trade routes.

Fatehpur Sikri: Fatehpur Sikri, founded by Akbar, stands as a testimony to his visionary urban planning and architectural innovation. This city showcases a synthesis of Indian, Persian, and Central Asian architectural styles. The Buland Darwaza, Diwan-i-Khas, and Panch Mahal are notable structures within the complex. Fatehpur Sikri was envisioned as a testament to religious harmony and cultural exchange, yet its abandonment due to water scarcity highlights the challenges of urban planning in arid regions.

Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi): Shahjahanabad, established by Emperor Shah Jahan, is the historic core of Old Delhi. It boasts iconic structures like the Red Fort and Jama Masjid. The urban layout, with its organized bazaars and residential quarters, exemplifies Mughal urban planning. The Chandni Chowk market and the layout of the city streets are reflective of the commercial and administrative functions of Shahjahanabad.

In comparison, Agra symbolizes the empire’s establishment, Fatehpur Sikri signifies Akbar’s innovative vision, and Shahjahanabad reflects Shah Jahan’s grandeur and architectural legacy. Each city encapsulates different aspects of Mughal culture, governance, and artistic expression.

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