Modern humans through their greater adaptability to climate managed to colonise every part of the globe where it is possible for humans to live. Moving out of Africa about 120000 thousand years ago they had reached Australia 60,000 years ago and America about 20,000 years ago. Many scholars believe that differences in skin colour, and body size belong to this age. Modern humans seem to have introduced a range of innovations which are unique to humans. Some of these advances were art (e.g. paintings in Lascaux, France, ivory horse from Vogelherd, Germany), invention of new tools and tailored clothing.

The European examples which have been carefully studied show that the Homo sapiens sapiens appeared in that area in the interglacial period. This period was relatively warm and provided favourable conditions and niches for the early humans to evolve. These humans were carrying the knowledge acquired by their ancestors. They controlled fire and built shelters for themselves. These innovations gave them the flexibility to colonise new areas by adapting to changing conditions. With their improved weapons they were able to hunt down big game and exploit marine resources. All this indicates that by this time culture and acquired knowledge began to out pace simple biological adaptation.


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