Present an overview of Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development.
ANSWER – INTRODUCTION : Eric Erikson’s personality is an important contribution to the principles of development. The theory of psychosocial development is a famous theory of Erikson, who tries to explain the development of personality which occurs in many stages since childhood. Psycho’s theory of social development describes the impact of social experience throughout life. In the process of social interaction, a person develops a sense of self. Ego identification is one of the important concepts of Erikson’s theory. This is the word given to the conscious spirit of self that develops through social interaction.
According to Erikson, this feeling of self changes, because a person passes through eight stages of psychosocial development. Every stage of life has new information and experience that exists in someone’s life. These are the challenges that are faced with the feeling of self or ego identity. The experience of experiencing these challenges determines the ego identity of the person and shapes life’s perception. There are challenges which are faced in daily conversation in the society and it becomes part of a person’s personality. In addition to identifying the ego, Erikson also acknowledged that the spirit of ability inspires behavior and actions. In Erikson’s theory, each stage is related to becoming capable in the field of life. If the phase is handled well, then the person will feel a sense of mastery, which is sometimes referred to as the quality of ego power or ego. If the forum is poorly managed, then the person will emerge with the feeling of insufficiency.
At each stage, Erikson believed that people experience a struggle that works as a turning point in the development. In Erikson’s view, these struggles focus on developing psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the likelihood of personal growth is high, but this is likely to be a failure. Under the steps of psychosocial development, discussions have been made in accordance with sub-sections.
Psychosocial Stage 1 – Trust vs. Mistrust (about 0-2 years).
This is the first stage of Erikson’s theory of psychological development. This condition ranges from the birth of the child to the age of two years. This is an important step because in this stage of life, a baby is fully dependent on the quality of care given. If proper care is given then a child will develop trust. It is considered important because this basic belief in caregivers will make a child feel safe and secure in most future interactions.
Psychosocial Stage 2 – Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2 – 3 YEAR)
Erikson’s second phase of the theory of psychological development occurs during early childhood. At this stage, children focus on developing more understanding of personal control. Erikson believed that toilet training was an important part of this process. He believed that learning to control one’s physical actions creates a sense of control and freedom of control. Psychosocial Stage 3 – Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 YEARS)
The third stage takes place during preschool years, when a child starts claiming his power and is able to control the world (its environment) through directing games and other social interactions. Children who succeed in this state feel capable and able to lead others.
Psychosocial Stage 4 – Industry vs. Inferiority (Approx. 5-12 yrs.)
This stage covers the elementary school years and is a latency stage. At this stage of life, a child starts developing a sense of pride in his accomplishments and abilities with social accomplishments. And if the child is encouraged and appreciated by parents and teachers, then he develops a sense of competence and trust in his skills.
Psychosocial Stage 5 – Identity vs. Confusion (Approx. 13-19 yrs.)
The fifth phase of development is in the phase of adolescence. At this stage, children find their freedom and develop their own feelings.
Psychosocial Stage 6 – Intimacy vs. Isolation (Approx. 20-24yrs. / 24-39 yrs.)
This phase covers the period of early adulthood. This is a phase in which people start searching for personal relationships. Erikson believed that it was important that people develop closer, committed relationships with others and have the ability to experience intimacy.
Psychosocial Stage 7 – Generativity vs. Stagnation (Approx.25-64/40-64 yrs.)
During middle adulthood, people build their life in many ways, such as building a career and caring for a family or taking care of them.
Psychosocial Stage 8 – Integrity vs. Despair (65 yrs. till death)
This is a phase that takes place during late hood or old age and focuses on reflection on life.
Erikson’s model is simple and elegant, yet it is very sophisticated. The theory is a broad or complex discussion and analysis of personality and behavior, and to facilitate personal development and to have a basis for themselves and others.
The main elements of the principle involved in this explanation are:
- Erikson’s theory overview – drawing and brief description of the main features of the model.
- Freudian phase of psychological development, which influenced the approach of Erikson’s psychosocial model.
- Erikson’s ‘psychosocial crisis’ (or phase of crisis) – meanings and interpretations
- ‘Basic Properties’ – Possible positive results arising from each of the potential crisis outcomes.
- ‘Maladapations’ and ‘ign Malignities’ – The potential negative consequences (one or the other) arising from the stage of each crisis.
- Erikson Glossary – Variations and refinement for names and titles, etc.
- Biography of Eric Erikson (short) Note.
CONCLUSION – This summary sometimes uses the words ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ to identify first or second factors in each crisis (eg; trust = positive; disbelief = negative) However, no crisis factor (temperament or emotional force) – Whatever you choose to call them. – Details are quite complicated because Erikson has also been found) is actually completely positive or completely negative. The development of healthy personality is based on a sensible balance between ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ in the state of each crisis. Erikson did not use positive and negative words in this sense. He tried to use ton sintonic ‘and onic diastolic’ to differentiate between two sides of each crisis, this is the reason I sometimes use the more ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ words Despite this, they are potentially wrong. If you use them in relation to the steps of the crisis, then you should also make your use of these conditions worthy.