Q. 5. What are some of the reading problems that students face? Suggest ways of rectifying two of the problems.

Ans. Reading Problems Miscues or Decoding Errors: Decoding is the process by which a word is broken into individual phonemes and recognized based on those phonemes. For instance, proficient decoders separate the sounds “buh,” “aah,” and “guh” in the word “bag.” Someone who has difficulty decoding, and thus difficulty reading easily, may not hear and differentiate these phonemes. “Buh,” “aah,” and “guh” might be meaningless to them in relation to the word “bag” on the page.

Experts have no one explanation for this phenomenon. In some cases, it may reflect that some people simply require more time to separate sounds — time that isn’t there. Miscue Analysis refers to a process of diagnosing a child’s reading. It is based on the premise of analyzing the errors a child makes during oral reading. When a child reads orally, the teacher learns a great deal about whether the child is making sense of what is being read by looking closely at the types of errors the child makes. By using the miscue analysis method, a teacher/parent will be much more capable of assisting those children who experience difficulty.

Using miscue analysis is extremely important as reading tests can’t give you this type of information. A holistic view of reading takes into account that “both the reader and the author are equally active in constructing or building meaning.” The text available is the “medium through which the author and reader transact.” Teachers who learn miscue analysis learn to build individual and personal models of reading for their students. By involving the teacher on such an individual basis in the reading process, reading can become an even more rich and complex place for author/reader transaction. Now, there is room for not only author and reader but a listener as well.

A miscue is any unexpected calling of a word or section of text. A miscue “says” something other than the exact printed text. Some might label such mis-callings as errors. However, the term error implies something negative. The fact that an unexpected response can be heard by a listener tells us that listeners are also transacting with text.


Miscue analysis values the choices made by readers and views miscues as a “window into the mind of the reader.” This window is an opportunity for both the teacher and the learner. Miscue analysis focuses specifically on “cueing systems” used by the reader. The three cueing systems used in miscue analysis are the same as those used to describe work done by readers in running records. The cueing systems are labeled slightly differently, as the graphophonic system (visual cues in running records), the syntactic system
(syntax or structure cues in running records), and the semantic system (meaning cues in running records).

A teacher should therefore raise these questions in analysing a reader’s miscues:

(a) How well does the child use phonic information during reading?

(b) How well does the child use syntactic information during reading?

(c) How well does the child use semantic information during reading?

Once the teacher is done with the analysis of child’s miscues, he/she gets the information about the area of weakness of that particular child. Now the teacher knows that which part he/she needs to emphasize for the child. It may be phoneme-grapheme relationship, or use of context clues, or how to use prediction on the basis of prior knowledge. Thus we can say that miscues analysis is of severe importance as a student’s diagnostic tool.

Vision Loss:

Sometime it so happens that if a child suffers from any problem regarding his vision, it may impact on his abilities of reading and interpreting the text. The first, person to recognize such problems is very often an elementary school teacher. Elementary school teacher may sometimes observe that when a child is ask to read she/he does so by bending his/her head down at the desk or keeping book very close to his/her eyes, he/she may thrust his/her body forward to see something written on the blackboard or he/she might rub eyes very often.

There are times when a child may complaint of not being able to see what is written on the blackboard or may complaint of a blurred vision while reading something far. It is immediate responsibility of the teacher to refer such children to their parents and ask them get an eye examination done of the children.

If the problem regarding the vision cannot be corrected, teacher can help children in overcoming the difficulties faced by them because of vision loss with helps of following means:

(a) By making such children sit near the blackboard.

(b) Teacher can make small groups and give instruction near a tripod where the words are written clearly and are relatively larger, rather than giving instruction to a large group.

(c) Teacher can also make use of a reader mate for such children, who can help in reading the given instruction on the boar or in the book.

(d) Another way to help such children is by making exercise and test material in large print.

(e) Teachers can also provide large print version of handwritten material to such children.

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