Question – Explain the meaning of variables. Classify the different types of variable.
Meaning of variables –
A variable, as the name implies, is something that is different. This is the simplest and comprehensive way of defining a variable. Webster says that a variable is “something that is variable” or “a quantity that can have many different values.” True, a variable is something that contains at least two values, however, it is also important that the price variables are observable. Thus, what is being studied is a variable, it has more than one value and every value can be observed. For example, the result of throwing a dye is a variable. There are six possible values in that variable (there is one to six points on each side of the die), each of which can be seen. In psychology, variables of interest are often due to behavior or behavior. Many psychologists have adopted a theoretical approach or model called the S-O-R model to explain all the behaviors.
Symbol S, O and R represent variable of different categories. S. is a symbol of stimuli, and the range can normally be referred to as the promotional variable. An incentive variable is some form of energy in the environment. Like light, through which the organism is sensitive. O symbolizes the variables of organisms – the dynamic physiological and psychological characteristics of organisms. Examples of such variable are anxiety levels, age and heart rate. Finally, R is a symbol of reaction and, in general, the reaction variable, which mentions some behavior or action of the organism. Say “yes”, examples of running and pressing the liver are examples of variable. However, a behaviorist scientist tries to define a variable more accurately and specifically. Curlinger (1964) defined the variable as an asset that takes different values. According to D’amato (1970), the variable can be defined as the characteristics of objects, events, things and creatures, which can be measured. In other words, variables are characteristics or conditions that can be controlled or viewed by the user. Sex, IQ, level of aspiration, anxiety, coping strategies, socio-economic status and achievement are examples that are usually employed in psychological research. Some variables used in behavioral research are true dicotomy, i.e. male female, living dead, working unemployed Some variables are polytheism – for example religious preference – Hindu, Muslim, Jain, Christian and Sikh etc. However, most variables are theoretically able to take variable variables.
Different types of variable –
A variable is some property of an event that takes different values. There are different types of variables such as independent variable, dependent variable, quantitative variable and gradual variable, active and attribute variable, constant and discrete variable, external and interference variable and so on.
1 Stimulus, Organism and Response Variable- Psychologists are interested in studying the causes of behavior or behaviors in the form of variables. Many psychologists have adopted a theoretical approach or model called the S-O-R model to explain all the behaviors. Symbol S, O and R represent variables of different categories. S. is a symbol of stimuli, and the range can normally be referred to as the promotional variable. An incentive variable is some form of energy in the environment, such as light, through which the organism is sensitive. O is a symbol of the variables of organisms, which are dynamic physiological and psychological characteristics of organisms. Examples of such variables are anxiety levels, age and rate of heart etc. In the end, R is a symbol of reaction and in general, reaction variables, which refer to some behavior or action of the organism such as suppressing the liver and reacting to some stimulation. Examples of variables are examples.
2 Independent and Dependent Variable – An independent variable or incentive variable (as it is called underwood) is the factor that manipulated or chosen by the user in his attempt to find out his relationship for a celebrated event. Depending on the mode of manipulation, some experts have attempted to split the independent variable into E type ‘independent variable and mode type S’ into independent variables . Type E Independient Variable is one of those which is experimentally manipulated directly or experimentally and type variables and constructs Independient Variable is that which is manipulated through the selection process.
3 Extraneous and Confounded Variable – Any variables which can mask ables to the relation between independent variables and dependent variables, they are known as external variables. External variables can directly affect dependent variables or can combine with independent variables to influence. Therefore, the external variable should be controlled so that the user can determine whether the dependent variables change in relation to variation in the independent variable or not. Many other factors that work in the real life situation can affect the change in dependent variables.
4 Active and Attribute Variable – Any variable manipulation is called active variable. Examples of active variables are the creation of worry through reward, punishment, teaching methods, instructions etc. Attract variable is that variable which is not an experiment but rather measured by experimentation. Variations which are human characteristics such as intelligence, attitudes, sex, socioeconomic status, education, dependence on the field and the need for achievement. The word ‘properties’ is more accurate when used within animated objects or references.
5 Quantitative and Categorical Variable – The quantitative variable is that which varies in the zodiac, whereas the graded variable varies in variant. Examples of quantitative variable such as speed of reaction, sound intensity, level of illumination, intelligence, and gender, race, religion are examples of classified variable. Accurate and accurate measurement with quantitative variables is possible, because they can be easily ordered in terms of increasing and decreasing magnitude. Category variable can be of three types: continuously, bifurcation and polynomials.
6 Continuous Variable and Discrete Variable – Quantitative variable are divided into two categories, i.e., continuous variables and discrete variables. The difference between continuous and discrete variable is especially useful in planning research and analysis of data. A continuous variable is that which is capable of being measured in any arbitrary degree or accuracy. Age, height, intelligence, reaction time, etc., are some examples of a continuous variable. The person’s age can be measured in the year, month and days. Thus, all such variables which can be measured in the smallest part of the smallness, are called continuous variables. Discrete variable are variable that are not able to be measured in any arbitrary degree or measure of accuracy because there is a clear difference in the variable.