IGNOU BPSC-133 is a course under the Bachelor of Arts (BA) program offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). To successfully complete the course and be eligible to appear for the exams in June 2024, students are required to submit the IGNOU BPSC-133 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 for the academic year 2023-24.

Below are the details of the IGNOU BPSC-133 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24:

Assignments FOR JULY 2023 AND JAN 2024 ADMISSION




IGNOU BPSC-133 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 Submission: Students are advised to submit the IGNOU BPSC-133 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 as per the specified schedule. The assignments must be submitted in soft copy/PDF format through the designated portal or email, as instructed by the university.

Guidelines for Preparing IGNOU BPSC-133 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24: While preparing the IGNOU BPSC-133 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24, students must adhere to the following guidelines:


Answer the following in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.
1. Describe the important methods of comparison in the study of political science.

In the study of political science, comparison is a fundamental method used to analyze and understand political systems, institutions, behaviors, and processes across different countries or regions. Comparative analysis helps researchers identify patterns, differences, and causal relationships, allowing for a deeper understanding of political phenomena. There are several important methods of comparison in political science:

  1. Case Study Approach: The case study method involves in-depth examination and analysis of a single or a few specific cases. Researchers select cases that represent different variations of a phenomenon to compare and contrast their features, processes, and outcomes. This method allows for a detailed exploration of context, history, and unique factors that influence political dynamics.
  2. Cross-National Comparative Analysis: This approach involves comparing multiple countries or regions to identify similarities and differences in political systems, institutions, policies, and outcomes. Researchers use quantitative data to conduct statistical analyses, generating insights into trends and patterns across countries. Cross-national comparisons can help reveal correlations and trends that may not be apparent within a single case.
  3. Historical Comparative Analysis: This method involves studying political systems and events across different time periods to trace historical developments, transformations, and continuities. By examining how political institutions and behaviors evolve over time, researchers can gain insights into the long-term effects of various factors and decisions.
  4. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): QCA is a method that combines qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze complex causal relationships. Researchers use set-theoretic logic to identify necessary and sufficient conditions for an outcome to occur. QCA is particularly useful for exploring multiple causal pathways and identifying various combinations of factors that lead to specific political outcomes.
  5. In-Depth Interviews and Ethnographic Research: These qualitative methods involve engaging with individuals, communities, or political actors within a specific context. Researchers conduct interviews, observations, and immersive fieldwork to gain a deep understanding of local perspectives, motivations, and dynamics. Ethnographic research is especially valuable for uncovering nuanced insights that may not be captured through quantitative analysis alone.
  6. Comparative Case Selection: This method involves purposefully selecting cases that represent specific characteristics, variables, or attributes for comparison. Researchers use different strategies, such as most similar systems or most different systems design, to highlight specific dimensions of comparison and tease out causal relationships.
  7. Process-Tracing: Process-tracing involves tracking the sequence of events and decision-making processes within a single case to understand how specific outcomes occurred. Researchers analyze the causal mechanisms and intervening variables that lead from initial conditions to the final result.
  8. Macro-Comparative Analysis: This approach focuses on broad patterns and trends across large groups of countries or regions. It often involves the use of quantitative data and statistical techniques to identify correlations and associations between variables.
  9. Longitudinal Comparative Analysis: Longitudinal studies involve analyzing the same cases over an extended period of time. Researchers can observe changes and trends within each case, as well as compare how different cases evolve over time.
  10. Theory-Driven Comparative Analysis: In this method, researchers start with a theoretical framework and use it to guide their comparative analysis. They seek to test or refine existing theories by examining how they apply to different cases.

In conclusion, comparison is a cornerstone of political science research, providing valuable insights into the complexities of political systems and behaviors. By employing various methods of comparison, researchers can uncover causal relationships, identify trends, and develop a deeper understanding of the factors that shape political outcomes across different contexts and time periods. Each method offers unique advantages and challenges, and the choice of method depends on the research question, available data, and the desired depth of analysis.

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