Describe some of the minor processes of word formation in English and their contribution to the enrichment of the English word-store.

The littlest units of dialect that have a significance or a linguistic capacity and frame

words or parts of words are called morphemes. In composing, singular morphemes are for the most part

spoken to by their realistic frame, or spelling; e.g., – es, – er, un-, re-; or by their

realistic shape between bracers, { }; e.g., {-es}, {-er}, {un-}, {re-}. The branch of phonetics

accountable for concentrate the littlest important units of dialect (i.e., morphemes), their extraordinary

frames, the inside structure of words, and the procedures and guidelines by which words

are shaped is called morphology.

Sorts of Morphemes

Contingent upon the way morphemes happen in an articulation, they are gathered into two

vast gatherings: free morphemes and bound morphemes.

1. Free or autonomous morphemes are those morphemes which can happen alone as

words and have an importance or satisfy a syntactic capacity; e.g., man, run, and. There are

two sorts of free morphemes.

a. Lexical (content or referential) morphemes are free morphemes that have semantic

substance (or meaning) and more often than not allude to a thing, quality, state or activity. For example,

in a dialect, these morphemes for the most part take the types of things, verbs, descriptive words

also, modifiers; e.g., pooch, Peter, house, construct, stay, upbeat, insightful, rapidly, dependably. All things considered,

lexical morphemes constitute the bigger class of morphemes. They frame the open class

of words (or substance words) in a dialect, i.e., a class of words prone to become due to the

consolidation of new individuals into it.

b. Function(al) or linguistic morphemes are free morphemes which have close to nothing

or, on the other hand no importance all alone, however which indicate linguistic connections in and between sentences.

For example, in a dialect, these morphemes are spoken to by relational words, conjunctions,

articles, demonstratives, helper verbs, pronouns; e.g., with, in any case, the, this, can,

who, me. It ought to be said that capacity words are quite often utilized as a part of their unstressed


2. Bound (or ward) morphemes are those morphemes which never happen alone

as words yet as parts of words; they should be joined to another morpheme (for the most part a free

morpheme) keeping in mind the end goal to have an unmistakable significance; e.g., – er in laborer, – er in taller, – s in strolls,

– ed in passed, re-as in return, un-in troubled, fix, – ness in availability, – capable in flexible;

– ceive in consider, get, – tain in contain, acquire, and so on. There are two sorts of bound

morphemes: bound roots and joins.

a. Bound roots are those bound morphemes which have lexical importance when they

are joined to other bound morphemes to frame content words; e.g., – ceive in get,

consider; – tain in hold, contain; plac-in unappeasable, assuage; cran-in

cranberry, and so forth. Notice that bound roots can be prefixed or suffixed to different fastens.

(See Appendix).

b. Affixes1

are bound morphemes which are normally imperceptibly connected to words

also, which change the importance or capacity of those words; e.g., – ment being developed,

en-in expand; ‘s in John’s; – s in applauds, – ing in examining, and so on.

Figure 3: Classification of morphemes

Lexical morphemes

Free morphemes

Morphemes Grammatical morphemes

Bound roots

Bound morphemes Prefixes

Fastens Infixes


Sorts of Affixes

Fastens can be grouped into two distinctive routes: as indicated by their position in the

word and as per their capacity in an expression or sentence.

1. As indicated by their position in the word (or side of the word they are appended to),

appends are grouped into prefixes, infixes and postfixes.

a. Prefixes are bound morphemes that are added to the start of the word; e.g.,

un-in unnoticed, an in flippant, sub-in metro, and so forth. Notice that prefixes are spoken to

by the morphemes took after by a hyphen (- ).

b. Infixes are bound morphemes that are embedded inside the words. There are no infixes

in the English dialect, yet in the dialects, for example, Tagalog and Bontoc

(in the Philippines), Infixes are spoken to by the morphemes went before and took after

by a hyphen; e.g., – um-.

c. Additions are bound morphemes which are joined to the finish of the word; e.g., –

capable in perceptible, – less in imprudent, – s in looks for, – en in abbreviate, and so on. Notice that

additions are spoken to by the morphemes went before by a hyphen.

2. As indicated by the capacity joins satisfy in the dialect, attaches are ordered into

derivational attaches (derivational morphemes or determinations) and inflectional appends (inflectional

morphemes or enunciations).

a. Derivational attaches are morphemes that make (or determine) new words, for the most part by

either changing the importance or potentially the grammatical feature (i.e., the syntactic classification), or both,

of the words they are joined to (Godby et al., 1982). In English, derivational morphemes

can be either prefixes or postfixes. For instance, un-+ upbeat (adj.) = despondent (adj.); re-+

characterize (v) = rename (v.); by-+ item (n.) = side-effect. (See Appendix for a rundown of

derivational prefixes and additions in English).

b. Inflectional attaches, as far as concerns them, are morphemes which serve a simply syntactic

work, for example, alluding to and giving additional etymological data about the as of now

existing importance of a word (e.g., number, individual, sex, case, and so forth.), communicating syntactic


between words (e.g. ownership, examination), among others. For example,

the diverse types of the verb talk are altogether thought to be verbs as well, in particular, talk, talked,

talking. In a like way, the near and superlative types of the modifier

solid are likewise modifiers, in particular, more grounded, most grounded. In English, there are just eight emphases.

They are – (e)s3

(third individual particular marker of verbs in current state), as in

talks, educates; – (e)s5

(general plural marker) as in books, oranges; ‘s (possessive marker)

as in John’s home; – (e)d5

(general past tense marker) as in helped, rehashed; – en5

(past participle

marker) as in talked, eaten; – ing (show participle marker) as in eating, examining;

– er (near marker) as in quicker, more joyful; and – est (superlative marker) as in speediest,

most joyful.

Roots and Stems

Roots (or bases) are the morphemes (free or bound) that convey the important or fundamental

idea, thought or importance in a word. They for the most part constitute the cores or centers of words.

At the point when roots are free morphemes, they constitute substance (and capacity) words independent from anyone else,

for example, book, pooch, house, convey, speedy, early, and so forth. At the point when roots are bound morphemes,4

they frame parts of words, for example, – ceive in see, – tain in achieve, – sume in assume,

and so on.

As far as concerns them, stems are free roots to which derivational joins have been included or are

prone to be included. In this sense, a stem = a root, as in angle, put; a stem = a root + one or

more deductions, as in agreeable, awkward, uncountableness. Notice that stems are words without inflectional morphemes. For instance, in the word disestablishment, disestablish, foundation, and set up (which is a root in the meantime) are stems.

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  1. 2017

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