FREE IGNOU BECC-134 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24
IGNOU BECC-134 is a course under the Bachelor of Arts (BA) program offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). To successfully complete the course and be eligible to appear for the exams in June 2024, students are required to submit the IGNOU BECC-134 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 for the academic year 2023-24. Below are the details of the IGNOU BECC-134 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24:
Assignments FOR JULY 2023 AND JAN 2024 ADMISSION
IGNOU BECC-134 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 Submission: Students are advised to submit the IGNOU BECC-134 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 as per the specified schedule. The assignments must be submitted in soft copy/PDF format through the designated portal or email, as instructed by the university.
Guidelines for Preparing IGNOU BECC-134 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24: While preparing the IGNOU BECC-134 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24, students must adhere to the following guidelines:
FREE IGNOU BECC-134 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 –
(a.) Causes and Effects of Inflation:
Causes of Inflation: Inflation refers to the sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. There are several factors that can contribute to the causes of inflation:
- Demand-Pull Inflation: This occurs when aggregate demand in an economy exceeds its aggregate supply. When consumers and businesses demand more goods and services than what the economy can produce, it leads to an increase in prices. This often happens during periods of robust economic growth and increased consumer spending.
- Cost-Push Inflation: This type of inflation is driven by increases in production costs, such as labor, raw materials, and energy. When these costs rise, businesses may pass on the additional expenses to consumers in the form of higher prices.
- Built-in or Wage-Price Spiral: This is a self-perpetuating cycle where higher wages lead to increased production costs for businesses, which then raise prices to maintain their profit margins. Workers, in turn, demand higher wages to keep up with the rising cost of living.
- Monetary Factors: The expansion of the money supply by a central bank can lead to inflation. When there is more money in circulation but the supply of goods and services remains the same, the value of money decreases, causing prices to rise.
- Supply Chain Disruptions: Natural disasters, geopolitical conflicts, and other disruptions to supply chains can reduce the availability of goods and services, leading to upward pressure on prices.
Effects of Inflation:
- Redistribution of Income and Wealth: Inflation can impact different groups of people unequally. Those on fixed incomes, such as retirees, may struggle to maintain their purchasing power as the cost of living rises. On the other hand, individuals who own assets like real estate or stocks might see their wealth increase.
- Reduced Purchasing Power: Inflation erodes the purchasing power of money. Consumers can buy fewer goods and services with the same amount of money, leading to a decline in their overall standard of living.
- Uncertainty: High inflation can create economic uncertainty, making it difficult for businesses to plan for the future. Rapidly changing prices can make it challenging to set prices, wages, and investment strategies.
- Interest Rates: Central banks often raise interest rates to combat inflation. Higher interest rates can lead to increased borrowing costs for businesses and consumers, which can slow down economic growth and investment.
- Distorted Economic Signals: Inflation can distort relative prices and economic signals. People may make purchasing decisions based on short-term considerations, rather than the underlying value of goods and services.
- International Competitiveness: High inflation in one country can make its goods and services more expensive relative to those of other countries. This can lead to reduced international competitiveness and hinder exports.
- Policy Challenges: Central banks and governments often have to implement policies to manage inflation, which can be challenging. Striking a balance between controlling inflation and promoting economic growth is a delicate task.
In summary, inflation can have far-reaching effects on an economy, impacting consumers, businesses, and the overall stability of the financial system. Managing inflation requires a combination of fiscal and monetary policies to ensure economic stability and sustainable growth.