IGNOU BPCG-173 is a course under the Bachelor of Arts (BA) program offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). To successfully complete the course and be eligible to appear for the exams in June 2024, students are required to submit the IGNOU BPCG-173 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 for the academic year 2023-24.

Assignments FOR JULY 2023 AND JAN 2024 ADMISSION




Below are the details of the IGNOU BPCG-173 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24:

  • Program: BPCG-173 (Bachelor of Arts – BA)
  • Course Code: BPCG-173
  • Session: July 2023 – January 2024
  • Submission Dates:
    • Assignment 2023-24: Last date for submission – 30th April 2024
    • Assignment 2023-24: Last date for submission – 30th October 2024

Assignment Submission: Students are advised to submit the IGNOU BPCG-173 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 as per the specified schedule. The assignments must be submitted in soft copy/PDF format through the designated portal or email, as instructed by the university.

Guidelines for Preparing IGNOU BPCG-173 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24: While preparing the IGNOU BPCG-173 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24, students must adhere to the following guidelines:


Question 1: Define coping and explain its goals. Describe various coping styles.

Definition of Coping: Coping refers to the process of managing stress, adversity, or challenging situations in life. It involves a dynamic interaction between an individual and the environment, where the individual employs psychological and behavioral strategies to deal with the demands and pressures they face. Coping mechanisms can vary widely from person to person and can influence emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to stressors.

Goals of Coping: The primary goal of coping is to reduce or manage the negative emotions and stress associated with difficult situations. Coping strategies aim to restore a sense of equilibrium and emotional well-being. Coping mechanisms also play a role in problem-solving and adapting to changes in life circumstances. By effectively coping with stress, individuals can enhance their resilience, maintain psychological health, and improve overall well-being.

Various Coping Styles: Coping styles can be broadly categorized into two main types: adaptive coping and maladaptive coping.

  1. Adaptive Coping: Adaptive coping strategies are constructive and effective ways of dealing with stressors. These coping mechanisms promote emotional well-being and contribute to long-term positive outcomes. Some examples of adaptive coping styles include:

a. Problem-solving: This coping style involves actively addressing the stressor and taking concrete steps to resolve the issue. It focuses on finding solutions and implementing them to alleviate the stress.

b. Positive reappraisal: This coping strategy involves reframing the stressful situation in a more positive light, focusing on opportunities for growth, learning, or personal development.

c. Seeking social support: Turning to friends, family, or support networks to share feelings, seek advice, or receive emotional assistance is another adaptive coping mechanism.

d. Acceptance: Acknowledging and accepting the reality of a stressful situation without denying or avoiding it can be a helpful coping strategy, especially when facing circumstances beyond one’s control.

  1. Maladaptive Coping: Maladaptive coping strategies are counterproductive and may provide temporary relief but can lead to negative long-term consequences. Some examples of maladaptive coping styles include:

a. Avoidance: This coping mechanism involves trying to escape or avoid the stressor altogether. While it might provide temporary relief, it does not address the underlying issue and can lead to increased anxiety in the long run.

b. Substance abuse: Turning to drugs, alcohol, or other harmful substances to numb emotional pain is a maladaptive coping strategy with significant negative consequences.

c. Denial: Ignoring or denying the existence of a problem may temporarily alleviate stress, but it hinders effective problem-solving and can exacerbate the situation in the long term.

d. Venting: Expressing emotions in an uncontrolled and aggressive manner without seeking resolution or understanding is an example of maladaptive coping.

It is important to note that coping strategies can be situation-specific and may vary based on individual preferences, cultural influences, and available resources. Effective coping involves a combination of adaptive strategies tailored to specific stressors and personal strengths.

In conclusion, coping is a crucial process that helps individuals manage stress and maintain emotional well-being. By understanding different coping styles and focusing on adaptive strategies, individuals can effectively deal with life’s challenges, cultivate resilience, and promote overall mental health and happiness.

Question 2: Explain the strength-based approach to work. Describe the nine components of gainful employment.

Strength-Based Approach to Work: The strength-based approach to work is a philosophy and practice that focuses on identifying and utilizing individuals’ strengths and positive attributes in their professional settings. Instead of solely concentrating on addressing weaknesses and deficiencies, this approach emphasizes leveraging employees’ innate talents and skills to enhance productivity, engagement, and overall job satisfaction. The goal is to create a work environment that allows employees to thrive and contribute in ways that align with their unique strengths.

Key principles of the strength-based approach include:

  1. Strengths Identification: Managers and leaders work to identify and understand the unique strengths of each employee. This involves recognizing their talents, skills, interests, and positive qualities.
  2. Strengths Integration: Once identified, efforts are made to integrate these strengths into the employees’ roles and responsibilities. This may involve reshaping job tasks or creating opportunities for employees to apply their strengths in their daily work.
  3. Growth and Development: The approach emphasizes ongoing growth and development based on employees’ strengths. This can involve providing training, mentoring, and resources to further enhance their capabilities.
  4. Positive Feedback: Regular and constructive positive feedback is given to employees to reinforce their strengths and acknowledge their contributions to the organization.
  5. Job Crafting: Employees are encouraged to shape their roles and responsibilities to align better with their strengths and interests. This empowerment leads to increased job satisfaction and motivation.

Components of Gainful Employment:

The concept of gainful employment refers to a type of work that provides individuals with not only financial remuneration but also a sense of purpose, fulfillment, and personal development. The nine components of gainful employment are as follows:

  1. Financial Security: Gainful employment ensures that individuals receive adequate compensation for their work, allowing them to meet their basic needs, reduce financial stress, and plan for the future.
  2. Job Satisfaction: Employees experience a sense of satisfaction and enjoyment in their work, deriving a sense of purpose and fulfillment from their job tasks.
  3. Opportunities for Growth: Gainful employment offers opportunities for employees to learn, develop new skills, and progress in their careers, fostering a sense of professional advancement.
  4. Work-Life Balance: A healthy work-life balance is promoted, enabling employees to manage their work responsibilities while maintaining personal and family life.
  5. Supportive Work Environment: The work environment is conducive to positive relationships, teamwork, and open communication, creating a sense of belonging and support.
  6. Recognition and Appreciation: Employees’ contributions are recognized and appreciated, boosting morale and motivation.
  7. Autonomy and Decision-making: Employees are given a certain degree of autonomy and involvement in decision-making processes, increasing their sense of ownership and responsibility in their work.
  8. Social Impact: Gainful employment provides individuals with a sense of contributing to something larger than themselves, making a positive impact on society or their community.
  9. Work Alignment with Personal Values: Employees’ values and beliefs align with the mission and values of the organization, creating a sense of purpose and meaning in their work.

By adopting a strength-based approach and incorporating these components of gainful employment, organizations can foster a positive and thriving work environment, leading to increased employee engagement, retention, and overall organizational success.

  1. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Health:

Cross-cultural perspectives on health refer to the diverse ways in which different cultures understand and approach health, illness, and well-being. These perspectives are shaped by cultural norms, beliefs, values, traditions, and social structures, and they significantly influence how individuals perceive health, seek medical care, and cope with illnesses. Understanding these differences is essential for healthcare professionals to provide effective and culturally sensitive care to diverse populations.

One aspect of cross-cultural perspectives on health is the concept of illness and disease. In some cultures, illness is seen as a result of supernatural forces or the violation of cultural taboos, while in others, it might be viewed as a biological or physiological imbalance. These beliefs impact treatment-seeking behaviors and the acceptance of medical interventions.

Cultural attitudes towards mental health and stigma are also crucial aspects. Some cultures may stigmatize mental health issues, leading to underreporting and inadequate access to mental health services. Other cultures may emphasize spiritual or community-based approaches to mental well-being.

Communication styles and attitudes towards healthcare providers also differ across cultures. Some cultures value direct and assertive communication, while others prefer a more reserved and respectful approach. Understanding these communication patterns is vital for building trust and rapport between patients and healthcare providers.

Traditional healing practices also play a significant role in cross-cultural health perspectives. Herbal medicine, acupuncture, and other traditional remedies may coexist alongside modern medical practices in certain cultures.

To provide equitable healthcare, healthcare professionals need to be culturally competent and considerate of patients’ beliefs and values. This requires learning about diverse cultural practices, beliefs, and customs, and integrating this knowledge into healthcare policies and practices.

  1. Techniques of Time Management:

Time management refers to the efficient use of time to maximize productivity and achieve goals. Effectively managing time helps individuals reduce stress, increase efficiency, and maintain a better work-life balance. Several techniques can aid in improving time management skills:

  1. Prioritization: Identify tasks and activities based on their urgency and importance. Use techniques like the Eisenhower Matrix to categorize tasks into four quadrants: urgent and important, important but not urgent, urgent but not important, and neither urgent nor important.
  2. Time Blocking: Allocate specific time blocks for different tasks or activities. This technique helps in staying focused and avoiding distractions.
  3. To-Do Lists: Create daily or weekly to-do lists to organize and keep track of tasks. Check off completed items for a sense of accomplishment.
  4. Pomodoro Technique: Work in short, focused intervals (e.g., 25 minutes) followed by short breaks. This method enhances productivity and helps prevent burnout.
  5. Set Goals: Define clear and achievable goals with specific deadlines. Having a sense of purpose enhances motivation and provides direction.
  6. Avoid Multitasking: Focus on one task at a time, as multitasking can reduce efficiency and lead to errors.
  7. Learn to Say No: Don’t overcommit yourself. Politely decline additional tasks that may overload your schedule.
  8. Delegate: If possible, delegate tasks to others, especially if they can handle them more efficiently.
  9. Limit Distractions: Identify and minimize distractions like social media, unnecessary meetings, or interruptions during work hours.
  10. Reflect and Adjust: Regularly assess your time management strategies and make adjustments as needed.

By adopting these techniques, individuals can better manage their time, improve productivity, and strike a healthy work-life balance.

  1. Anxiety Disorders as Stated in DSM-5:

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), classifies anxiety disorders as a group of mental health conditions characterized by excessive fear, worry, and avoidance behaviors. Here are some of the key anxiety disorders as stated in DSM-5:

  1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): GAD involves chronic and excessive worry about various aspects of life, such as health, work, or relationships, even when there is no apparent reason for concern. Individuals with GAD often experience physical symptoms like restlessness, muscle tension, and difficulty sleeping.
  2. Panic Disorder: Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks—sudden episodes of intense fear or discomfort, accompanied by physical symptoms like heart palpitations, trembling, and shortness of breath. People with panic disorder may also develop a fear of having future panic attacks, leading to avoidance behaviors.
  3. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia): Social anxiety disorder involves an intense fear of social situations and being judged or embarrassed by others. It can lead to avoidance of social interactions, public speaking, or performance situations.
  4. Specific Phobias: Specific phobias are intense and irrational fears of specific objects or situations, such as heights, spiders, flying, or closed spaces. Exposure to the feared object or situation can trigger extreme anxiety.
  5. Agoraphobia: Agoraphobia is characterized by an intense fear of situations or places where escape might be difficult or embarrassing. Individuals with agoraphobia may avoid crowded places, public transportation, or being outside their home.
  6. Separation Anxiety Disorder: This disorder is primarily diagnosed in children and involves excessive fear or anxiety about separation from attachment figures, such as parents or caregivers.

To be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, the symptoms must significantly impair the person’s ability to function in daily life and persist for an extended period. Treatment for anxiety disorders often includes psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy) and, in some cases, medication (e.g., antidepressants or anxiolytics). Early intervention and support are crucial for managing anxiety disorders effectively.

  1. Biopsychosocial model of health: The biopsychosocial model of health is a comprehensive approach to understanding and managing health and illness. It recognizes that health outcomes are influenced by multiple interconnected factors, including biological, psychological, and social components. This model emphasizes that physical health issues cannot be fully understood or effectively treated by considering only biological factors. Instead, it takes into account the interactions between biological processes, psychological factors (e.g., thoughts, emotions), and social determinants (e.g., family, culture, environment).

By adopting this model, healthcare professionals can develop a more holistic and patient-centered approach to healthcare, as it encourages them to consider a person’s lifestyle, beliefs, social support, and cultural background when diagnosing and treating medical conditions. The biopsychosocial model highlights the importance of preventive measures and addressing the root causes of health problems, rather than just treating symptoms.

  1. Symptoms of stress: Stress is the body’s natural response to perceived threats or demands, and while it can be beneficial in some situations, chronic or excessive stress can have negative effects on physical and mental health. Common symptoms of stress include physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral changes.

Physically, stress may manifest as headaches, muscle tension, fatigue, changes in sleep patterns, and digestive issues. Emotionally, individuals may experience irritability, anxiety, sadness, or a sense of being overwhelmed. Cognitively, stress can lead to difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, individuals under stress may exhibit changes in eating habits, social withdrawal, increased use of substances like alcohol or tobacco, or engaging in risk-taking behaviors.

It’s essential to recognize these symptoms to identify and manage stress effectively. Healthy coping strategies such as exercise, relaxation techniques, social support, and seeking professional help can assist in reducing stress and promoting overall well-being.

  1. Inverted-U: The Inverted-U, also known as the Yerkes-Dodson law, is a psychological principle that illustrates the relationship between arousal and performance. According to this model, there is an optimal level of arousal for each task, and performance improves with increasing arousal levels up to a certain point. However, beyond that point, further increases in arousal lead to a decline in performance.

The curve of the Inverted-U graph represents the relationship between arousal and performance. Low arousal levels lead to low performance, but as arousal increases, so does performance, reaching an optimal point. After the peak, if arousal continues to rise, performance declines.

The Inverted-U concept is widely applied in various fields, including sports, education, and work environments. It suggests that both under-arousal and over-arousal can negatively impact performance. Finding the right balance and level of arousal for a specific task or activity is essential to achieving optimal results.

  1. Meditation: Meditation is a practice that focuses on training attention and awareness to achieve mental clarity and emotional calmness. It is often used for relaxation, stress reduction, and promoting overall well-being. Meditation techniques can vary, but most involve finding a quiet place, assuming a comfortable posture, and directing one’s attention to a particular point of focus.

Common types of meditation include mindfulness meditation, where individuals observe their thoughts and feelings without judgment; loving-kindness meditation, which involves generating feelings of compassion and love towards oneself and others; and transcendental meditation, where practitioners use a mantra to achieve a state of deep relaxation and inner peace.

Research has shown that regular meditation can have several benefits, such as reducing stress, anxiety, and symptoms of depression. It may also improve attention, focus, and emotional regulation. Meditation is often incorporated into wellness programs, therapy, and self-help practices, offering individuals a tool to cultivate a sense of inner calm and balance amidst life’s challenges.

  1. Epilepsy: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. Seizures occur due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain, leading to temporary disturbances in behavior, consciousness, and sensation. There are various types of seizures, ranging from mild, brief episodes to severe and prolonged convulsions.

The causes of epilepsy can be diverse, including brain injuries, genetic factors, developmental disorders, brain tumors, infections, and other medical conditions. In some cases, the cause may be unknown (idiopathic).

Management of epilepsy typically involves antiepileptic medications, which help control seizures in many individuals. In more severe cases, where medication is not effective, other treatment options such as ketogenic diets or surgical intervention may be considered.

It’s important to note that epilepsy does not define a person’s entire life, and with proper management, many individuals with epilepsy can lead fulfilling lives. Support from healthcare professionals, family, and the community can play a crucial role in helping individuals with epilepsy manage their condition and reduce its impact on their daily activities.

Download IGNOU BPCG-173 Study Material: To assist in the preparation of the IGNOU BPCG-173 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24, students can access the study material provided by IGNOU. The study material offers valuable insights, references, and examples related to the course topics.

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