DOWNLOAD HERE IGNOU BSOS-184 ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 AND ALSO check out IGNOU BSOS-184 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 GUIDELINES.  यहाँ BSOS-184 ASSIGNMENT 2022-23 डाउनलोड करें और इसके अलावा IGNOU BSOS-184 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 की GUIDELINES भी देखें। To successfully complete the course and be eligible to appear for the exams in June 2024, students are required to submit the IGNOU BSOS-184 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 for the academic year 2023-24.

Assignments FOR JULY 2023 AND JAN 2024 ADMISSION
ASSIGNMENT IGNOU BSOS-184 Solved Assignment 2023-24
SERVICE TYPE Solved Assignment (Soft Copy/PDF)
Programme: BSOS-184/2023-24
Course Code BSOS-184
SESSION July 2023- January 2024

30th OCTOBER 2024


1. Ethnographic Film in India:
Ethnographic film is a genre of documentary filmmaking that focuses on the study and representation of various cultures, societies, and people. It aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the customs, traditions, rituals, beliefs, and ways of life of different communities. In India, ethnographic films have been an essential tool for anthropologists, researchers, and filmmakers to document and present the diverse cultural tapestry of the country.

Ethnographic films in India have been used to preserve and showcase the rich cultural heritage of various regions and tribes. These films often involve immersive fieldwork, where filmmakers spend time living and interacting with the community they are documenting. They strive to portray the subjects in a respectful and authentic manner, avoiding exoticization or misrepresentation.

Prominent Indian ethnographic filmmakers, such as Satyajit Ray, Louis Malle, and Arun Khopkar, have contributed significantly to this genre. They have explored themes ranging from folk traditions and rituals to socio-political issues affecting marginalized communities.

2. Nature of Reflexive Documentary:
A reflexive documentary is a subgenre of documentary filmmaking that goes beyond merely presenting facts and events. It acknowledges the filmmaker’s presence and perspective, making the filmmaking process a part of the narrative. In other words, the filmmaker reflects on their role and the impact of their choices on the documentary’s construction. This self-aware approach challenges the notion of objectivity in traditional documentary filmmaking.

Reflexive documentaries often include behind-the-scenes footage, discussions about the filmmaking process, and interviews with the crew. The filmmaker may also address their biases, subjectivity, and ethical dilemmas encountered during the production. By doing so, the documentary becomes a critical examination of not just the subject but also the process of representation itself.

3. Documentary Film as Journalism:
Documentary films can be journalistic to some extent, as they share similarities with journalism in their pursuit of truth and factual information. Like journalism, documentaries aim to inform, educate, and raise awareness about real-world issues. They often involve research, interviews, and the presentation of evidence to support their claims.

However, documentaries differ from traditional journalism in several ways. While journalism strives for objectivity, documentaries may embrace subjectivity and creative storytelling techniques to evoke emotions and engage the audience. Documentaries also tend to have a more extended narrative arc compared to news segments or articles, allowing for a deeper exploration of the subject.

It’s essential to note that not all documentaries are journalistic in nature, as some may focus on personal stories, artistic expression, or experimental filmmaking without adhering to strict journalistic standards.

4. Construction of Meaning in Cinema:
Meaning in cinema is constructed through various cinematic elements such as visuals, editing, sound, dialogue, and symbolism. Filmmakers use these tools to convey specific ideas, emotions, and messages to the audience. The meaning of a film can be explicit or implicit, depending on the filmmaker’s intentions and the viewer’s interpretation.

Example 1: Symbolism – In the movie “The Shawshank Redemption,” the repeated use of a poster of Rita Hayworth symbolizes hope and the longing for freedom for the main character, Andy Dufresne, as he plans his escape from prison.

Example 2: Editing – In the opening sequence of “2001: A Space Odyssey,” director Stanley Kubrick uses a match cut to transition from a bone thrown by an ape to a spaceship in the distant future, suggesting the evolution of humankind and the advancement of technology.

Example 3: Sound – In the horror film “Jaws,” the iconic suspenseful music creates tension and fear even before the shark is seen on screen, effectively manipulating the audience’s emotions.

5. Oral History:
Oral history is a method of historical documentation that involves the collection and preservation of personal accounts, memories, and experiences through recorded interviews or testimonies. Unlike written history, which often relies on official documents or published sources, oral history captures the lived experiences and perspectives of individuals and communities.

Oral history is valuable for understanding historical events from the viewpoints of those who experienced them. It provides insights into everyday life, cultural practices, and social changes that may not be found in traditional historical records. Additionally, oral history can help preserve the stories of marginalized or underrepresented groups whose voices might otherwise be overlooked or forgotten.

6. Editing in Cinema:
Editing is a crucial post-production process in filmmaking, where raw footage is selected, arranged, and combined to create a coherent and engaging narrative. It is during the editing stage that the story comes together, and the pacing, rhythm, and emotional impact of the film are shaped.

Different editing techniques can be used to influence the audience’s perception and emotional response. For instance, fast-paced editing can create tension and excitement in action scenes, while slow and deliberate editing can evoke contemplation and introspection in dramatic moments.

The juxtaposition of shots and sequences in editing allows filmmakers to convey meaning and subtext. Continuity editing maintains a seamless flow of action, while jump cuts or montages can be used for creative or stylistic purposes.

7. Observational Documentary:
Observational documentary, also known as direct cinema or cinema verite, is a style of documentary filmmaking that aims to capture reality as it unfolds without intervention or interference from the filmmaker. The primary goal is to observe and document events, situations, and people in their natural state without staging or scripting.

Filmmakers employing this style often use handheld cameras to maintain a sense of immediacy and intimacy. They avoid narration or voiceovers and let the events and subjects speak for themselves. The goal is to provide an unfiltered and authentic representation of the subject matter.

One famous example of an observational documentary is “Grey Gardens” (1975), directed by Albert and David Maysles. The film observes the eccentric lives of Edith Ewing Bouvier Beale and her daughter, Edith Bouvier Beale (Big Edie and Little Edie), relatives of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, as they live in seclusion in their decaying mansion.

8. Oral Testimony:
Oral testimony refers to firsthand accounts of historical events or experiences given by individuals who were directly involved or witnesses. These testimonies are often recorded through interviews, oral history projects, or testimonial collections. Oral testimonies serve as valuable historical sources, providing unique insights into the personal perspectives, emotions, and details that might not be evident in written records.

During times of conflict, war, or other significant events, oral testimonies play a crucial role in preserving the memories and stories of those affected. They offer a humanizing element to historical narratives, giving a voice to individuals who might otherwise remain silent or forgotten in official histories.

9. Long Shot:
In cinematography, a long shot (LS) is a camera shot that captures a wide view of a scene, showing the subject or subjects in their surroundings. The primary purpose of a long shot is to establish the setting, context, or geography of the scene. It can also be used to emphasize the relationship between characters and their environment or to convey a sense of scale.

A long shot is often taken from a distance, and the subjects appear relatively small within the frame. This shot allows the audience to see the entire scene and understand the spatial relationships between elements within it.

For example, in a Western film, a long shot might show a lone cowboy riding across the vast desert landscape, illustrating the isolation and immensity of the setting.

10. Camera Movement:
Camera movement refers to the physical movement of the camera during a shot or sequence. Different camera

movements can convey specific emotions, perspectives, or cinematic effects.

Some common camera movements include:

– Pan: The camera swivels horizontally from a fixed position, scanning the scene from side to side.
– Tilt: The camera moves vertically, pointing upward or downward while maintaining its horizontal axis.
– Tracking (or Dolly): The camera physically moves along a track or dolly to follow the subject or create a smooth lateral movement.
– Zoom: The camera lens adjusts its focal length to magnify or reduce the size of the subject without physically moving the camera.
– Crane Shot: The camera is mounted on a crane or jib arm to achieve elevated or sweeping movements.

Camera movements can add dynamism, drama, or a sense of perspective to visual storytelling. For example, a slow zoom-in on a character’s face can intensify their emotions, while a tracking shot following a character’s movement can create a sense of involvement and momentum.

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