THE PROCESS OF STANDARDIZATION : ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Therefore, the establishment of a literary standard paved the way to fix the meaning of a linguistic norm. Once the norm was established, at least in written language, it was possible to break it for stylistic purposes, in particular, to represent the speech of people from distant regions, whose language was supposed to have certain clearly identifiable characteristics. Therefore, in the course of the 16th century,
the growing sense of a literary norm can be seen by the numerous attempts to represent the speech of foreigners, the linguistic characteristics of the Welsh, Scots and Irish, and speakers of other dialects of English. Now is when we begin to see the stereo of these speakers. Increasingly, they play the role of buffoons or boomers. Non-standard speech is equated with simplicity or roughness; and to represent those qualities in literature, some form of marking is adopted for non-standard characteristics.
इसलिए, एक साहित्यिक मानक की स्थापना ने भाषाई मानदंड के अर्थ को ठीक करने का मार्ग प्रशस्त किया। एक बार मानदंड स्थापित होने के बाद, कम से कम लिखित भाषा में, विशेष रूप से, दूरस्थ क्षेत्रों के लोगों के भाषण का प्रतिनिधित्व करने के लिए स्टाइलिस्ट उद्देश्यों के लिए इसे तोड़ना संभव था, जिनकी भाषा निश्चित रूप से पहचानने योग्य विशेषताओं के बारे में थी। इसलिए, 16 वीं शताब्दी के दौरान, साहित्यिक मानदंड की बढ़ती भावना विदेशियों के भाषण, वेल्श, स्कॉट्स और आयरिश की भाषाई विशेषताओं और अंग्रेजी की अन्य बोलीभाषाओं के वक्ताओं का प्रतिनिधित्व करने के कई प्रयासों से देखी जा सकती है। अब जब हम इन वक्ताओं के स्टीरियो को देखना शुरू करते हैं। तेजी से, वे बफून या बूमर्स की भूमिका निभाते हैं। गैर मानक भाषण सादगी या खुरदरापन के साथ समझा जाता है; और साहित्य में उन गुणों का प्रतिनिधित्व करने के लिए, गैर-मानक विशेषताओं के लिए अंकन के कुछ रूप अपनाए जाते हैं।
The acceptance of the standard, therefore, causes a rejection of the types of English that are considered outside the norm. Therefore, although Chaucer could objectively represent the discourse of people whose dialect was not his, otherwise it would be in the sixteenth century. For example, one dialect that was selected by game writers and others as the target of a cheap laugh was Kent. We are immediately reminded here of King Lear, where Edgar speaks in the dialect of Kent to Oswald evoking laughter in the audience.
Such literary practices reflect the growing awareness of a standard variety in the course of the sixteenth century. By then, attempts were being made to define the standard: it had reached the stage of explicit acceptance.
But, acceptance by whom? Acceptance by government officials and small groups of literary figures is not the same as acceptance by the aristocracy; even less is its acceptance by the vast majority of ordinary people. But at the end of the sixteenth century, we have an accepted norm, and some prestigious forms of speech, which were consciously and unconsciously promoted by a small elite. However, we do not know to what extent we can speak of a standard pronunciation at this time, or how widespread that pronunciation was among the aristocracy in general. What we can be sure of is that the prestige of a dialect triggered the contempt of others. Kentish is only the first to be stigmatized. In the course of the next Centuries, dialects from other parts of England are variously labeled as “offensive,” “disgusting” and “barbaric.”