DOWNLOAD HERE IGNOU BEGG-172 ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 AND ALSO check out IGNOU BEGG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 GUIDELINES.  यहाँ BEGG-172 ASSIGNMENT 2022-23 डाउनलोड करें और इसके अलावा IGNOU BEGG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 की GUIDELINES भी देखें। To successfully complete the course and be eligible to appear for the exams in June 2024, students are required to submit the IGNOU BEGG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 for the academic year 2023-24.

Assignments FOR JULY 2023 AND JAN 2024 ADMISSION


ASSIGNMENT IGNOU BEGG-172 Solved Assignment 2022-23 
SERVICE TYPE Solved Assignment (Soft Copy/PDF)
Programme: BEGG-172/2023-24
Course Code BEGG-172
SESSION July 2023- January 2024

30th OCTOBER 2024

Below are the details of the IGNOU BEGG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24:

  • Program: BEGG-172 (Bachelor of Arts – BA)
  • Course Code: BABG-172
  • Session: July 2023 – January 2024
  • IGNOU BEGG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 Submission Dates:
    • Assignment 2023-24: Last date for submission – 30th April 2024
    • Assignment 2023-24: Last date for submission – 30th October 2024

Assignment Submission: Students are advised to submit the IGNOU BEGG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24 as per the specified schedule. The assignments must be submitted in soft copy/PDF format through the designated portal or email, as instructed by the university.

Guidelines for Preparing IGNOU BEGG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24: While preparing the IGNOU BEGG-172 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2023-24, students must adhere to the following guidelines:


  1. Creativity and Arbitrariness in Human Language:

Creativity: Creativity in the context of human language refers to the remarkable ability of speakers to generate and understand an infinite number of novel and meaningful expressions. Unlike other communication systems observed in the animal kingdom, human language is not limited to a fixed set of pre-programmed signals. Instead, speakers can combine words, phrases, and grammatical structures in countless ways to produce new and unique messages. This property of language allows us to convey complex ideas, share stories, and discuss abstract concepts. The creative nature of language is fundamental to human communication, enabling us to adapt to new situations and express our thoughts effectively.

Arbitrariness: Arbitrariness is a property of human language in which the relationship between linguistic symbols (words) and their meanings is arbitrary or not inherently connected. In most cases, there is no inherent reason why a particular sound sequence represents a specific concept or object. For example, there is nothing inherently “dog-like” about the word “dog” itself; it is merely a sound pattern associated with the concept of a canine. Different languages may use entirely different sounds to refer to the same object or idea. For instance, the word for “dog” is “perro” in Spanish and “chien” in French.

The arbitrariness of language is essential for flexibility and ease of learning. If the relationship between words and meanings were not arbitrary, we would need to memorize a unique sound for every concept or object, making language acquisition exceedingly complex. Instead, humans use a finite set of sounds (phonemes) to create an extensive vocabulary to represent an infinite array of ideas, objects, and experiences.

In summary, creativity and arbitrariness are two key characteristics of human language that contribute to its versatility, allowing us to produce and understand an unlimited number of novel expressions and meanings using a relatively limited set of linguistic units.

  1. Multilingualism in India:

India is a linguistically diverse country with a rich tapestry of languages. The Constitution of India recognizes 22 scheduled languages, including Hindi and English, as well as numerous regional languages. This linguistic diversity results from historical, geographical, and socio-cultural factors.

Nature of Multilingualism:

  1. Regional Diversity: India’s multilingualism is characterized by the coexistence of various regional languages spoken across different states and Union territories. Each state often has its official language, and citizens in these regions tend to be proficient in their mother tongue.
  2. Language Families: Languages in India belong to several language families, such as Indo-European (e.g., Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi), Dravidian (e.g., Tamil, Telugu, Kannada), and others (e.g., Marathi, Gujarati). This diversity is a result of historical migrations and interactions among different linguistic groups.
  3. Language Contact: Many Indians grow up in multilingual environments, where they are exposed to multiple languages from an early age. Language contact occurs frequently, leading to code-switching (switching between languages in a conversation) and borrowing of words from one language to another.
  4. Official Language Policy: The Indian government has adopted a three-language formula, encouraging the study of Hindi, English, and the regional language in schools. However, the actual implementation of this policy varies across states due to the linguistic preferences and sentiments of the local population.
  5. Linguistic Identity: Language plays a significant role in shaping individual and group identities in India. People often associate their language with their cultural heritage, leading to strong emotional attachments to their mother tongue.
  6. Urbanization and Migration: As people move for work, education, and other opportunities, they may encounter different linguistic communities, contributing to further multilingualism in urban centers.
  7. Language Politics: Language has been a sensitive and contentious issue in Indian politics, leading to occasional linguistic movements and demands for recognition of regional languages.

Despite its linguistic diversity, India has managed to maintain a strong sense of national identity. The widespread knowledge of English and Hindi also serves as a unifying factor, facilitating communication between people from different linguistic backgrounds.

In conclusion, multilingualism in India is a complex and dynamic phenomenon shaped by historical, social, and political factors. Embracing this diversity and promoting multilingual education can foster a richer cultural understanding and a more inclusive society.

  1. Definition of Syllable with Examples:

A syllable is a basic unit of pronunciation and a building block of words in phonology. It is a single, uninterrupted sound or a combination of sounds that typically consists of a vowel (nucleus) and may be accompanied by consonant sounds (onsets and codas). Syllables play a crucial role in the rhythm and structure of spoken language.

Examples of Syllables:

  1. Single Syllable Words:
    • Cat (/kæt/)
    • Sun (/sʌn/)
    • Dog (/dɒɡ/)
    • Book (/bʊk/)
  2. Two-Syllable Words:
    • Table (/ˈteɪ.bl̩/)
    • Happy (/ˈhæ.pi/)
    • Rabbit (/ˈræ.bɪt/)
    • Butter (/ˈbʌ.tər/)
  3. Three-Syllable Words:
    • Elephant (/ˈɛ.lɪ.fənt/)
    • Computer (/kəmˈpjuː.tər/)
    • Chocolate (/ˈtʃɒk.lət/)
    • Umbrella (/ʌmˈbrɛl.ə/)
  4. Complex Syllables:
    • “Strength” has one syllable, but it is a complex syllable with a consonant cluster at the beginning and a coda at the end: /strɛŋθ/.
    • “Beautiful” has three syllables with a complex final syllable: /ˈbjuː.tɪ.fʊl/.
  5. Vowel-Only Syllables:
    • “I” (/aɪ/)
    • “A” (/eɪ/)
    • “O” (/oʊ/)

It is important to note that not all languages have the same syllable structure, and some languages may allow more complex syllables with multiple consonant clusters. The syllable structure of a language can influence its phonotactics, phonological processes, and overall phonological complexity.

Understanding syllables is essential for language learners, particularly when it comes to pronunciation, phonics, and word stress. Breaking words into syllables can also aid in reading, as it helps identify the patterns of the language and facilitates word recognition.

In summary, a syllable is a fundamental unit of spoken language, consisting of one or more sounds, with a vowel (nucleus) as its core. The concept of syllables is crucial in phonetics, phonology, and language learning.

  1. Consonants of English:

Consonants are a class of speech sounds in human language that are produced by obstructing or constricting the airflow in some way, usually by using the articulatory organs like the tongue, lips, teeth, and palate. Unlike vowels, which are produced with a relatively open vocal tract, consonants involve some degree of constriction or closure.

English Consonants:

English has a diverse set of consonant sounds, classified based on their place and manner of articulation. Here are some of the main categories of English consonants along with suitable examples:

1. Plosives (Stops): These consonants are produced by completely blocking the airflow and then releasing it. English has six plosive sounds:

  • /p/ as in “pat”
  • /b/ as in “bat”
  • /t/ as in “top”
  • /d/ as in “dog”
  • /k/ as in “cat”
  • /g/ as in “go”

2. Fricatives: These consonants are produced by narrowing the airflow to create friction. English has nine fricative sounds:

  • /f/ as in “fan”
  • /v/ as in “van”
  • /θ/ as in “think”
  • /ð/ as in “this”
  • /s/ as in “sip”
  • /z/ as in “zip”
  • /ʃ/ as in “she”
  • /ʒ/ as in “measure”
  • /h/ as in “hat”

3. Affricates: Affricates are a combination of a plosive and a fricative. English has two affricate sounds:

  • /tʃ/ as in “chat”
  • /dʒ/ as in “jam”

4. Nasals: Nasals are produced by lowering the velum (the soft part at the back of the roof of the mouth), allowing air to flow through the nose. English has three nasal sounds:

  • /m/ as in “man”
  • /n/ as in “no”
  • /ŋ/ as in “sing”

5. Liquids: English has two liquid sounds:

  • /l/ as in “love”
  • /r/ as in “run”

6. Glides (Semi-vowels): Glides are produced with minimal constriction and can act as a transition between vowels. English has two glide sounds:

  • /j/ as in “yes” (y sound)
  • /w/ as in “we”

It’s worth noting that English may have variations in pronunciation across different accents and dialects. Additionally, some sounds may not exist in certain varieties of English.

Consonants, along with vowels, form the foundation of spoken language, enabling us to create meaningful words and communicate effectively. Mastering the different consonant sounds is crucial for clear and accurate pronunciation in English.


  1. Discuss the relationship between words in English:

In English, words are the fundamental building blocks of language. They carry meaning and play a crucial role in communication. The relationships between words can be categorized into various types, each contributing to the overall structure and understanding of sentences and discourse. Some important relationships between words in English include:

a) Synonyms: Synonyms are words that have similar meanings. For example, “happy” and “joyful” are synonyms because they both convey a sense of happiness.

b) Antonyms: Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. Examples include “hot” and “cold,” “good” and “bad,” etc.

c) Homonyms: Homonyms are words that sound the same but have different meanings. For instance, “bank” can mean a financial institution or the side of a river.

d) Hyponyms: Hyponyms are words that refer to a more specific concept within a broader category. For instance, “rose” is a hyponym of the broader category “flower.”

e) Hypernyms: Hypernyms are words that represent a broader category, encompassing various specific items. For example, “fruit” is a hypernym for “apple,” “banana,” “orange,” etc.

f) Meronyms: Meronyms are words that represent a part of a whole. For example, “finger” is a meronym of “hand.”

g) Holonyms: Holonyms are words that represent the whole to which a part belongs. In the previous example, “hand” is the holonym of “finger.”

Understanding these relationships helps with word choice, avoiding redundancy, and enriching language use.

  1. What is a Morpheme? Discuss:

A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language that carries meaning. It is not necessarily a standalone word but can be a part of a word, prefix, or suffix. Morphemes are the building blocks of words, and they combine to form meaningful units. There are two main types of morphemes: free morphemes and bound morphemes.

a) Free Morphemes: Free morphemes can function as independent words and carry meaning on their own. For example, “book,” “dog,” and “happy” are all free morphemes because they can stand alone and convey complete meanings.

b) Bound Morphemes: Bound morphemes, on the other hand, cannot stand alone as independent words but must attach to free morphemes. They modify the meaning of the base word. For instance, adding “-ed” to “walk” creates “walked,” which indicates the past tense of the verb.

Bound morphemes can be further classified into prefixes (e.g., “un-” in “undo”), suffixes (e.g., “-able” in “comfortable”), and infixes (less common, like in Tagalog, where infixes like “-um-” are inserted in the middle of the root word).

Morphemes are essential in understanding the structure of words and the rules of word formation in a language, which is particularly useful for language learning and analysis.

  1. Discuss the common functional elements in sentences:

Functional elements in sentences are grammatical components that serve specific purposes to convey meaning and syntactic structure. They are essential for organizing and connecting different parts of a sentence. Some common functional elements include:

a) Subject: The subject is the main noun or pronoun that performs the action in a sentence. It answers the question “who” or “what” is doing the action. For example, in the sentence “John eats an apple,” “John” is the subject.

b) Verb: The verb is the core of a sentence and expresses the action or state. In the previous example, “eats” is the verb.

c) Object: The object is the noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb. In the sentence “John eats an apple,” “apple” is the object.

d) Adjective: Adjectives modify nouns and provide additional information about them. For example, in “the tall building,” “tall” is the adjective describing the building.

e) Adverb: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs and indicate how, when, where, or to what extent an action occurs. In “she runs quickly,” “quickly” is the adverb modifying the verb “runs.”

f) Prepositions: Prepositions show relationships between nouns/pronouns and other elements in a sentence. Examples include “in,” “on,” “under,” “with,” etc.

g) Conjunctions: Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses within a sentence. Common conjunctions include “and,” “but,” “or,” “because,” etc.

h) Articles: Articles (a, an, the) are used to specify or indicate the noun they precede.

These functional elements help in structuring sentences and conveying precise meanings in English and other languages.

  1. Discuss various types of English verbs and types of Verb phrases:

Verbs are essential parts of speech that denote actions, events, or states of being. They are central to constructing meaningful sentences. English verbs can be classified into several categories:

a) Action Verbs: Action verbs represent physical or mental actions. Examples include “run,” “write,” “think,” and “sing.”

b) Linking Verbs: Linking verbs connect the subject of a sentence to a subject complement that describes or renames it. Common linking verbs include “is,” “am,” “are,” “was,” “were,” “become,” and “seem.” For example, in “He is a doctor,” “is” links “he” to the subject complement “doctor.”

c) Auxiliary Verbs (Helping Verbs): Auxiliary verbs work with the main verb to form different tenses, aspects, voices, and moods. Examples are “be,” “have,” “do,” “can,” “will,” “shall,” etc. In “She is singing,” “is” is the auxiliary verb.

d) Modal Verbs: Modal verbs express necessity, possibility, ability, or permission. Common modals include “can,” “could,” “may,” “might,” “shall,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “must,” etc. For instance, “You should study for the test.”

Verb phrases are formed by the main verb and its auxiliary (if any). They provide more nuanced information about the action or event. For example, in “He is eating breakfast,” “is eating” is the verb phrase, with “eating” as the main verb and “is” as the auxiliary.

Additionally, verb phrases can be:

a) Simple: Containing only the main verb, e.g., “They play.”

b) Continuous/Progressive: Formed with “be” + present participle, e.g., “She is studying.”

c) Perfect: Formed with “have” + past participle, e.g., “They have arrived.”

d) Perfect Continuous/Progressive: Formed with “have been” + present participle, e.g., “I have been working.”

Understanding these verb types and verb phrases allows for more precise and sophisticated communication in English.


1. Nature of Language Variation and Factors Leading to Language Variation

Language variation refers to the differences and diversities that exist in the use of language within a speech community. These variations can occur at various levels, including phonological (sounds), morphological (word structure), syntactic (sentence structure), lexical (vocabulary), and semantic (meaning). Language variation is a natural and inherent characteristic of any living language, and it reflects the dynamic and evolving nature of communication among speakers. The factors that contribute to language variation can be broadly categorized into social, geographic, and historical factors:

A. Social Factors:

  1. Social Class: Different social classes may exhibit distinct patterns of language use, known as sociolects. For example, vocabulary, accent, and grammar may vary between the upper-class, middle-class, and working-class communities.
  2. Age: Language evolves over time, and younger generations often introduce new lexical items, idioms, or speech patterns. This leads to generational language variation, where older and younger speakers may exhibit differences in language use.
  3. Gender: Gender-based language variation, known as genderlects, can occur, where males and females might employ different language styles, word choices, and intonation patterns.
  4. Ethnicity: People from different ethnic backgrounds may have distinct language features, which can be observed in their pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar.

B. Geographic Factors:

  1. Dialects: Different regions may have their own distinct dialects, characterized by variations in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. For instance, British English and American English are two prominent dialects of the English language.
  2. Accents: Within a language, speakers from different regions may have unique accents, reflecting phonological variations.

C. Historical Factors:

  1. Language Contact: When different linguistic communities interact, they can influence each other’s languages, leading to the emergence of new vocabulary, grammar, and phonological features. This process is called language contact, and it can result in pidgins, creoles, or mixed languages.
  2. Language Change: Languages are constantly evolving, and historical changes in phonology, morphology, and syntax can give rise to language variation across different time periods.
  3. Language Evolution: Over centuries, languages undergo natural evolution, leading to differences in vocabulary and grammar, even within the same language family.

It’s important to note that language variation is not a sign of incorrect language use. Instead, it reflects the richness and adaptability of language to suit the needs of different communities and contexts.

2. Concepts of Stress and Rhythm in Connected Speech

Stress in linguistics refers to the emphasis or prominence given to certain syllables or words within a sentence or utterance. In many languages, including English, stress plays a crucial role in conveying meaning and facilitating comprehension. Stressed syllables are typically pronounced with a higher pitch, increased loudness, and a longer duration compared to unstressed syllables.

Rhythm, on the other hand, relates to the patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables in connected speech. Different languages exhibit different rhythmic patterns based on how they distribute stress within words and sentences.

Let’s consider the following example to understand stress and rhythm in English:

Sentence: “She is going to the beach.”

In English, stress often falls on content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) rather than function words (pronouns, prepositions, articles). So, when we say the sentence aloud, the stressed syllables are as follows:

“She IS GOing to the BEACH.”

The stressed syllables are in uppercase letters. Notice how “is,” “to,” and “the” are unstressed and spoken more quickly, while “She,” “going,” and “beach” are stressed and receive more emphasis.

Rhythm Types in Connected Speech:

  1. Stress-Timed Rhythm: English is considered a stress-timed language, along with languages like German and Dutch. In stress-timed languages, the time between stressed syllables is relatively constant, while the time between unstressed syllables may vary. As a result, stressed syllables are more evenly spaced, creating a regular rhythm. However, this can lead to a reduction of unstressed syllables in fast speech. For example, “going to” in “She is going to the beach” may be pronounced more like “gonna” in rapid speech.
  2. Syllable-Timed Rhythm: Some languages, such as French and Spanish, exhibit a syllable-timed rhythm. In these languages, the time between syllables is more evenly distributed, resulting in a more equal duration for stressed and unstressed syllables. This makes the rhythm sound more uniform, without significant reduction of unstressed syllables.
  3. Mora-Timed Rhythm: Certain languages, like Japanese, have a mora-timed rhythm. A mora is a unit of syllable weight, and in mora-timed languages, each mora takes approximately the same amount of time. This means that syllables with more complex consonant clusters may be pronounced more quickly to maintain the rhythm.

Rhythm plays an essential role in the natural flow and intelligibility of speech. It allows speakers to group words and phrases effectively, making it easier for listeners to comprehend the intended message.

3. Different Kinds of Inflectional Affixes

Inflectional affixes are morphemes attached to words to indicate grammatical information, such as tense, number, case, or person. Unlike derivational affixes, which create new words or change the word’s meaning significantly, inflectional affixes do not change the core meaning of a word. Instead, they add grammatical details.

There are several types of inflectional affixes in English:

  1. Plural Marker: The plural marker “-s” is used to indicate more than one of something. For example:
    • cat → cats
    • dog → dogs
  2. Possessive Marker: The possessive marker “‘s” (or just “‘” when added to plural nouns ending in “s”) indicates ownership or possession. For example:
    • girl → girl’s
    • children → children’s
  3. Past Tense Marker: The past tense marker “-ed” is added to regular verbs to indicate actions that have already happened in the past. For example:
    • walk → walked
    • talk → talked
  4. Present Participle Marker: The present participle marker “-ing” is used to form the present participle of verbs, which indicates ongoing or continuous actions. For example:
    • run → running
    • play → playing
  5. Past Participle Marker: The past participle marker is also often “-ed,” but it can vary for irregular verbs. The past participle is used in various verb tenses and constructions. For example:
    • have → had (past participle)
    • eat → eaten (past participle)
  6. Comparative and Superlative Markers: These markers are used to compare different degrees of an adjective or adverb.
    • tall → taller → tallest
    • fast → faster → fastest
  7. Progressive Marker: The progressive marker “-ing” can also function as an inflectional marker when used in progressive tenses to indicate ongoing actions.
    • She is eating dinner.
  8. Modal Verbs: Modal verbs, like “can,” “could,” “will,” “shall,” “should,” “may,” “might,” “must,” “would,” are inflectional in nature as they modify the main verb to indicate modality, such as possibility, necessity, permission, etc.

It is important to note that not all languages use inflectional affixes to mark these grammatical categories. Some languages may use different strategies, such as word order or separate words (e.g., auxiliary verbs) to convey similar information.

4. Relations of Coordination in Compound Sentences and Semantic Implications

In compound sentences, coordination links two or more independent clauses of equal grammatical rank. These independent clauses can stand alone as complete sentences, but they are linked to express a relationship between the ideas or actions they convey. Coordination is achieved using coordinating conjunctions, such as “and,” “but,” “or,” “nor,” “for,” “so,” and “yet.”

Examples of Compound Sentences with Coordination:

  1. I went to the store, and I bought some groceries.
  2. She is a talented singer, but she is not confident on stage.
  3. You can have cake or ice cream for dessert.

Semantic Implications of Coordination:

  1. Additive Coordination: When clauses are linked using “and,” the relationship is additive. It means both clauses are independent and convey separate information, which is combined in the sentence.
    • I studied for the exam, and I passed with flying colors.
  2. Adversative Coordination: When clauses are linked using “but,” the relationship is adversative. It means there is a contrast or opposition between the two clauses.
    • The weather was sunny, but we decided to stay indoors.
  3. Disjunctive Coordination: When clauses are linked using “or” or “nor,” the relationship is disjunctive. It means there is a choice or alternative between the clauses.
    • You can have tea or coffee with your breakfast.
  4. Causal Coordination: When clauses are linked using “for,” the relationship is causal. It indicates that the second clause provides a reason or explanation for the first clause.
    • She missed the train, for she overslept this morning.
  5. Consecutive Coordination: When clauses are linked using “so,” the relationship is consecutive. It indicates a cause-and-effect relationship between the clauses.
    • The concert was sold out, so we couldn’t get tickets.
  6. Resultative Coordination: When clauses are linked using “so…that,” the relationship is resultative. The first clause leads to a consequence or result stated in the second clause.
    • She practiced hard, so she performed exceptionally well.
  7. Contrastive Coordination: When clauses are linked using “yet,” the relationship is contrastive, similar to “but.” It emphasizes the difference or unexpectedness between the clauses.
    • The day was hot, yet he wore a heavy jacket.
  8. Explanatory Coordination: When clauses are linked using “for,” the relationship is explanatory, providing additional information for the previous statement.
    • We missed the bus, for it arrived early today.

The coordination of independent clauses in compound sentences allows for a more sophisticated and expressive way of conveying complex ideas. Different coordinating conjunctions introduce various nuances and shades of meaning, enriching the overall semantic context of the sentence. The choice of coordination in a compound sentence can significantly impact the way the sentence is interpreted by the reader or listener.

You may also like...

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

error: Content is protected !!