1 Origin of Words in English: The origin of words in English is a fascinating journey through history and linguistic evolution. English is a language with a rich history of borrowing and assimilating words from various sources, which has contributed to its vast vocabulary. The vocabulary can be classified into three main sources: native words, borrowed words, and coined words.

  1. Native Words: These are words that have their origins in Old English, the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons before the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. They include words like “house,” “tree,” and “water.” These words have deep historical roots and reflect the original Germanic influences on English.
  2. Borrowed Words: Throughout its history, English has borrowed words from other languages due to historical and cultural interactions. The major sources of borrowed words are Latin, French, and Norse. For instance, English adopted many legal and scientific terms from Latin, such as “aquarium” and “persona.” French influence after the Norman Conquest led to the introduction of words like “government” and “parliament.”
  3. Coined Words: As society and technology evolved, new concepts and inventions required new words. These words were often coined by combining existing elements of the language. For example, “television” is a blend of “tele” (far) and “vision” (sight), reflecting its function.
  4. Loanwords: These are borrowed words that retain their original form and meaning, such as “piano” from Italian and “karaoke” from Japanese.
  5. Calques: Calques are direct translations of foreign expressions, like “skyscraper,” which was influenced by the French “gratte-ciel.”

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